Saturday, August 2, 2008


Geography and climate
Nagaland is largely a mountainous state. The Naga Hills rise from the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam to about 2,000 feet and rise further to the southeast, as high as 6,000 feet. Mount Saramati at an elevation of 12,552level is the state's highest peak - this is where the Naga Hills merge with the Patkai Range in Myanmar. Rivers such as the Doyang and Dhiku to the north, the Barak river in the southwest and the Chindwin river of Myanmar in the southeast, dissect the entire state.
Nagaland is rich in flora and fauna. About one-sixth of Nagaland is under the cover of tropical and sub-tropical evergreen forests - including palms, bamboo and rattan as well as timber and mahogany forests. While some forest areas have been cleared for jhum - cultivation - many scrub forests, high grass, reeds and secondary dogs, pangolins, porcupines, elephants, leopards, bears, many species of monkeys, sambar, deers, oxen and buffaloes thrive across the state's forests. The Great Indian Hornbill is one of the most famous birds found in the state.
Nagaland has a largely monsoon climate with high humidity levels. Annual rainfall averages around 70-100 inches - concentrated in the months of May to September. Temperatures range from 70 degrees to 104 degrees Fahrenheit. In winter, temperatures don't generally drop below 39 degrees Fahrenheit, but frost is common at high elevations.
The railway network in the state is minimal. The length of broad gauge lines is 7.63 km, while that of the metre gauge lines is only 5.22 km. The length of National Highway roads is 365.38 km and state roads is 1094 km. There is one airport in dimapur and another is being planned for Kohima, the state capital.
National Highways with the towns served:
National Highways:
Length: 365.38 km
• NH-61 - Kohima, Wokha, Tseminyu, Wokha, Mokokchung, Changtongya, Tuli
• NH-39 - Kohima, Dimapur, Chumukedima, Medziphema
• NH-36 - Dimapur
State Highways
Length: 1094.60 km
• Chakabama-Mokokchung Via Chazuba and Zunheboto
• Kohima-Meluri
• Mokokchung-Mariani
• Mokokchung-Tuensang
• Namtola-Mon
• Tuensang-Mon-Naginimora
• Tuensang-Kiphiri-Meluri
• Wokha-Merapani Road
[Source: Office of The Chief Engineer, P.W.D., Kohima, Nagaland]
• Name of the airport - Dimapur
• Distance from the State Capital - 70.0 km
• Town Nearest to the Airport - Dimapur
For further details, refer Dimapur airport
Nagaland is very rich in bio-diversity, both flora and fauna. Even today some pockets of forests are covered with gigantic trees, where sun- rays can not penetrate. Due to reckless and uncontrolled cutting of trees for timber, firewood, continued Jhum cultivation and annual fire in vast tracts of land, forests got degraded and barren, which accelerated diminishing of the most of the original characteristics of the forests.
Though geographically being a small state, Nagaland has several types of forests, mainly because the state is mostly Tropical, and the altitudes range from a few hundred meters to about four thousand meters. The major types of forests found in the state, as per the classification of Champion & Seth, are as follows.
1. Northern Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests.
2. Northern Tropical Semi- Evergreen Forests
3. Northern Sub- Tropical Broad Leave Wet Hill Forests
4. Northern Sub-Tropical Pine Forests
5. Northern Montana Wet Temperate Forests &
6.Temperate Forests.
Pinus khasyia(Indigenous), Pinus caribiae (Exotic),Pinus petula and Cryptomeria japonica (Exotic)
Lagerstromia speciosa (Ajhar), Tectona grandis (Teak), Mangifera indica (Am), Alnus nepalensis (Alder), Morus laevigata (Bola), Tetrameles nudiflora (Bhelu), Trewia nudiflora (Bhelkar), Betula alnoides (Betula), Canarium resiniferum (Dhuna), Gmelina arborea (Gomari), Cinnamomum cecicodaphne (Gonsoroi), Nyssa javanica (Gahorisopa), Terminalia myriocarpa (Hollock), Adina eligocephala (Haldisopa),Cedrela toona (Jatipoma), Podocarpus nerifolia (Jinari), Altingia exelsa (Jutuli), Duabanga grandiflora(Khokon), Albizzia procera (Koroi), Anthocephalus kadamba (Kadam), Shorea assamica (Mekai), Endospermum chinensis (Phulgomari), / Melia azadirach (Ghoora-Neem), Stereospermum chelonoides (Paroli), Magnolia spp. (Sopas), Cassia fistula (Sonaru), Bombax ceiba (Semal), Ficus nervosa (Robar), Spondias axillaris(Hog plum), Michelia champaca (Titasopa), Bischofia javanica (Uriam), Juglans regia (Walnut), Mansonia dipikai (Badam), Phoebe goalparensis (Bonsom), Dipterocarpus macrocarpus (Hollang), Terminalia chebula (Hilika), Schima wallichii (Gogra), Mesua ferrea (Nahar), Albizzia lebbeck (Siris), Quercus Spp. (Oaks), Artocarpus chaplasha Sam), Chukrasia tabularis (Bogipoma), Terminilia bellerica (Bahera). Hovenia dulcis(Coral tree), Acrocarpus fraxinifolius(Mandani), Bucklandia populnea(Pipli), Pseudostreblus indicus(Tsüngkoh)
World tallest Rhododendron tree, which is recorded in the Guineese Book, has been found in Japfu Mountain of Kohima district.
Panax pseudo-gensing (Gensing), Taxus baccata (Yew), Aquilaria agallocha (Agar),Solanum khasianum, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Aegle marmelos (Bel), Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpgandha), Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudraksha), Dioscorea deltoides (Kath Aloo), Emblica officinalis (Amla), Swertia chirata (Chirata), Rubia cordifolia, Oroxylum indicum, Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Passiflora edulis
There are 22 species of Bamboos available in the state. The important spp.of bamboo are:
1. Sinarundinaria griffithiana (Munro) Chao & Renv.
( Arundinaria griffithiana Munro) Saramati
2. Sinarundinaria elegans (Kurz) Chao & Renv.
( Arundinaria elegans Kurz) Puliebadze, near Kohima.
3. Sinarundinaria rolloana (Gamble) Chao & Renv.
( Arundinaria rolloana Gamble) Japfü Range, Kohima.
4. Sinarundinaria nagalandiana Naithani Niriyo Peak, Wokha.
5. Chimonobambusa callosa (Munro) Nakai
( Arundinaria callosa (Munro) Puliebadze above Kohima and Mao.
6. Neomicrocalamus prainii (Gamble) Keng f.
(Arundinaria prainii Gamble) Puliebadze, Japfü Range.
7. Bambusa balcooa Roxb. Wokha
8. Bambusa tulda Roxb. Kohima, Jaluki
9. Bambusa palliada Munro Wokha, Kohima and Zeliang village
10. Dendrocalamus hookeri Munro Kohima, Wokha
11. Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees et Arn ex Munro
Dimapur-Kohima Road, and Wokha
12. Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro Kohima, Mao.
13. Dendrocalamus calostachys (Kurz) Kurz
Phikrokezema, Dimapur and Kohima
14. Schizostachyum polymorphum (Munro) Majumdar
(Pseudostachyum polymorphum Munro) Longsachu near Wokha
15. Schizostachyum dullooa (Gamble) Majumdar
( Teinostachyum dullooa Gamble) Yikum near Wokha
16. Schizostachyum fuchsianum (Gamble) Majumdar
(Cephalostachyum fuchsianum Gamble) Kohima, Zulhama-Kilomi
17. Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz. ( M. bambusoides Trin.) Jaluki
1. Calamus rotang
2. Calamus flagellum
3 Calamus erectus
4. Calamus gracilis
5. Calamus floribundus
Nagaland has about 340 spp. out of 1250 spp. of orchids found in India. Most of the Orchids here are epiphytes or lithophytes. A few terrestrial orchids are also found in the state.
1 Acampa papillosa
2 Acampa rigida
3 Acampa wightiana
4 Acanthephippium striatum
5 Acanthephippium sylhetense
6 Aerides crassifolium
7 Aerides fieldingii
8 Aerides multiflorum
9 Aerides odoratum
10 Anoectochilus crispus
11 Anoectochilus elwesil
12 Anoectochilus grandiflorus
13 Anoectochilus griffithi
14 Anoectochilus roxburghii
15 Anthogonium gracile
16 Aphyllorchis montana
17 Aphyllorchis prainii
18 Appendicula cornuata
19 Arachis bilinguis
20 Arachis cathcartii
21 Arundina graminifolia
22 Ascocentrum ampullaceum
23 Ascocentrum curvifolium
24 Ascocentrum micranthum
25 Ascocentrum miniatum
26 Brachycorythis obcordata
27 Bulbophyllum aculiflorum
28 Bulbophyllum affine
29 Bulbophyllum andersonii
30 Bulbophyllum careyanum
31 Bulbophyllum caudatum
32 Bulbophyllum cylindraceum
33 Bulbophyllum dyeranum
34 Bulbophyllum elatum
35 Bulbophyllum eulepharum
36 Bulbophyllum gambeiel
37 Bulbophyllum guttulatum
38 Bulbophyllum gymnopus
39 Bulbophyllum helenae
40 Bulbophyllum hirtum
41 Bulbophyllum hymenanthum
42 Bulbophyllum leopardinum
43 Bulbophyllum leptanthum
44 Bulbophyllum odoratissimum
45 Bulbophyllum ornatissimum
46 Bulbophyllum pencillium
47 Bulbophyllum piluliferum
48 Bulbophyllum polyrhizum
49 Bulbophyllum reptans
50 Bulbophyllum rigidum
51 Bulbophyllum rothschildianum
52 Bulbophyllum roxburghii
53 Bulbophyllum secundum
54 Bulbophyllum striatum
55 Bulbophyllum umbellatum
56 Bulbophyllum uniflorum
57 Bulbophyllum viridiforum
58 Bulbophyllum wallichi
59 Calanthe alismifolia
60 Calanthe alpina
61 Calanthe angusta
62 Calanthe biloba
63 Calanthe brevicornu
64 Calanthe chloroleuca
65 Calanthe clavate
66 Calanthe densiflora
67 Calanthe foestermannii
68 Calanthe gracilis
69 Calantheherbacea
70 Calanthe manni
71 Calanthe musuca
72 Calanthe plantaginea
73 Calanthe puberula
74 Calanthe tricarinata
75 Calanthe triplicata
76 Calanthe vaginata
77 Calanthe vestita
78 Calanthe whiteana
79 Cephalanthera ongifolia
80 Ceratostylis himalaica
81 Ceratostylis teres
82 Cheirostylis griffithii
83 Cheirostylis pusilla
84 Cleisocentron trichromum
85 Cleisostoma aspersum
86 Cleisostoma filliforme
87 Cleisostoma simondii
88 Cleisostoma striatum
89 Cleisostoma subulatum
90 Cleisostoma racemiferum
91 Coelogyne barbata
92 Coelogyne corymbosa
93 Coelogyne cristata
94 Coelogyne flaccida
95 Coelogyne fuscescens
96 Coelogyne griffithi
97 Coelogyne hitendrae
98 Coelogyne longipes
99 Coelogyne micrantha
100 Coelogyne nitida
101 Coelogyne occuitata
102 Coelogyne ovalis
103 Coelogyne prolifera
104 Coelogyne punctulata
105 Coelogyne raizada
106 Coelogyne rigida
107 Coelogyne schultesii
108 Coelogyne stricta
109 Coelogyne viscosa
110 Corymborkis veratrifolia
111 Cremastra wallichiana
112 Cryptochilus lutea
113 Cryptochilus sanguineus
114 Cymbidium aloifolium
115 Cymbidium cochleare
116 Cymbidium devonianum
117 Cymbidium elegans
118 Cymbidium ensifolium
119 Cymbidium eburneum
120 Cymbidium iridioidea
121 Cymbidium lancifolium
122 Cymbidium longifolium
123 Cymbidium lowianum
124 Cymbidium macrorhizon
125 Cymbidium mastersii
126 Cymbidium pendulam
127 Cymbidium tigrinum
128 Cymbidium tracyanum
129 Dendrobium acinaciforme
130 Dendrobium anceps
131 Dendrobium aphyllum
132 Dendrobium bensoniae
133 Dendrobium bicameratum
134 Dendrobium candidum
135 Dendrobium chrysanthum
136 Dendrobium chrystoxum
137 Dendrobium crepidatum
138 Dendrobium densiflorum
139 Dendrobium denudans
140 Dendrobium devonianum
141 Dendrobium eriaeflorum
142 Dendrobium falconeri
143 Dendrobium farmeri
144 Dendrobiumfimbriatum
145 Dendrobium formosum
146 Dendrobium gibsonil
147 Dendrobium heterocarpum
148 Dendrobium hookerianum
149 Dendrobium infundibulam
150 Dendrobium jenkinsii
151 Dendrobium lindleyi
152 Dendrobium longicornu
153 Dendrobium moschatum
154 Dendrobium nobile
155 Dendrobium ochreatum
156 Dendrobium porphyrochilum
157 Dendrobium primulinum
158 Dendrobium pulchellum
159 Dendrobium stuposum
160 Dendrobium terminata
161 Dendrobium thysiflorum
162 Dendrobium transparens
163 Dendrobium wardianum
164 Dendrobium williamsonii
165 Diplomeria hirsuta
166 Diplomeria pulchelia
167 Diplomeria championi
168 Epigeneium amplum
169 Epigeneium fuscescens
170 Epigeneium rotundatum
171 Eria acevata
172 Eria alba
173 Eria amica
174 Eria bambusifolia
175 Eria biflora
176 Eria bractesces
177 Eria coronaria
178 Eria dasyphylla
179 Eria excavata
180 Eria graminifolia
181 Eria muscicola
182 Eria paniculata
183 Eria pannea
184 Eria spicata
185 Eria stricta
186 Eria vittata
187 Eulophia bicallosa
188 Eulophia graminea
189 Eulophia nuda
190 Flickingeria fimbriata
191 Flickingeria fugax
192 Galeola falconeri
193 Galeola lindleyana
194 Gastrochilus acutifolium
195 Gastrochilus calceolaris
196 Gastrochilus distichus
197 Gastrochilus inconspicuum
198 Gastrochilus pseudodisticus
199 Geodorum densiflorum
200 Goodyera foliosa
201 Goodyera fusca
202 Goodyera hispida
203 Goodyera procera
204 Goodyera repens
205 Goodyera schiechtendaliana
206 Goodyera secundiflora
207 Goodyera viridiflora
208 Habennaria acuifera
209 Habennaria dentata
210 Habennaria ensifolia
211 Habennaria furcifera
212 Habennaria intermedia
213 Habennaria malleifera
214 Habennaria pactinata
215 Habennaria stenopetala
216 Herminium lanceum
217 Herminium macrophyllum
218 Herminium monorchis
219 Hetaeria rubens
220 Hygrochilus parishii
221 Kingidium deliciosum
212 Kingidium taenialis
213 Liparis assamica
214 Liparis bistriate
215 Liparis biturberculata
216 Liparis bootanensis
217 Liparis caespitosa
218 Liparis cordifolia
219 Liparis delicatula
220 Liparis distans
221 Liparis longipes
222 Liparis nervosa
223 Liparis odorata
224 Liparis pardoxa
225 Liparis petiolata
226 Liparis plantaginea
227 Liparis platyrachis
228 Liparis pulchella
229 Liparis resupina
230 Liparis viridiflora
231 Luisia inconspicua
232 Luisia prachystachys
233 Luisia prachystachys
234 Luisia teritifolia
235 Luisia trichorhiza
236 Luisia zeylanica
237 Malaxis acuminata
238 Malaxis biaurita
239 Malaxis cylindroatachya
240 Malaxis josephiana
241 Malaxis khasiana
242 Malaxis latifolia
243 Micropera mannii
244 Micropera rostrata
245 Monomera barbata
246 Neogyne gardneriana
247 Neotianthe secundiflora
248 Neottia listeroides
249 Nephelaphyllum cordifolium
250 Nervilia aragoana
251 Nervilia prainiana
252 Oberonia acaulis
253 Oberonia clarkel
254 Oberonia ensiformis
255 Oberonia griffithiana
256 Oberonia iridifolia
257 Oberonia longilabris
258 Oberonia mannii
259 Oberonia micrantha
260 Oberonia obcordata
261 Oberonia orbicularis
262 Oberonia pachyrachis
263 Oberonia pyrulifera
264 Oberonia recurva
265 Oreochis foliosa
266 Ornithochilus difformis
267 Otochilus alba
268 Otochilus fusca
269 Otochilus lancilabius
270 Pachystoma senile
271 Panasia unifllora
272 Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum
273 Papiopedilum insigne
274 Paplionanthe longicornu
275 Paplionanthe teres
276 Pecteilis gigantea
277 Pecteilis susannae
278 Pelanthanthera insectifera
279 Perisrtylus affinis
280 Perisrtylus chloranthus
281 Perisrtylus constictus
282 Perisrtylus densus
283 Perisrtylus falla
284 Perisrtylus goodyeroides
285 Perisrtylus mannii
286 Perisrtylus prainii
287 Phalus flabus
288 Phalus longipes
289 Phalus mishmensis
290 Phalus tankervilliae
291 Pholidota articulata
292 Pholidota calceolata
293 Pholidota convallariae
294 Pholidota grifithii
295 Pholidota imbricata
296 Pholidota imbricata
297 Pholidota imbrcata
298 Pholidota protacta
299 Pholidota rubra
300 Phreatia elegans
301 Platanthera arcuata
302 Platanthera stenantha
303 Pleione hookeriana
304 Pleione humilis
305 Pleione maculata
306 Pleione praecox
307 Poneoorchis chusua
308 Pteroceras suaveolens
309 Renanthera imschootiana
310 Rhynchostylis retuasa
311 Robiquetia succisa
312 Satyrium napalense
313 Schoenorchis gemmata
314 Smitinandia micrantha
315 Spathoglottis ixioides
316 Spathoglottis plicata
317 Spathoglottis pubescens
318 Spiranthes sinense
319 Sunipia bicolor
320 Sunipia candida
321 Thelasis longlifolia
322 Taeniophyllum khasianum
323 Thunia alba
324 Thunia marshlliana
325 Tropidia curculigoides
326 Tylostyles discolor
327 Uncifera acuminata
328 Uncifera obtusifolia
329 Vanda alpina
330 Vanda bicolor
331 Vanda coerulea
332 Vanda cristata
333 Vanda pumila
334 Vanda tesselata
335 Vanda testacea
336 Vanda undulata
337 Vandopsis vandarum
338 Yoania prainii
339 Zeuxine abbreviata
340 Zeuxine flava
341 Zeuxine goodyeroides
342 Zeuxine gracilis
343 Zeuxine nervosa
344 Zeuxine strateumatica

Common Name Scientific Name
1. Asian Elephant Elephas maximus.
2. Gaur (Indian Bison) Bos gaurus.
3. Jackal Canis aurius
4. Tiger Panthera tigris.
5. Sambar Cervus unicolor
6. Leopard Panthera pardus.
7. Barking Deer Muntaiqus muntijak
8. Wild boar. Sus scrofa
9. Sloth Bear Melursus arsinus
10. Serow Capricornis sumatraensis
11. Hoolock Hylobatus hoolock
12. Common Langur Presbytis antillus
13. Macaque Macaca spp.
14. Leopard Cat. Filis bengalensis
15. Himalayan Squirrel Callosciuras pygerythru
16. Pangolin. Manis crasicaudata
17. Civet. Vivirra Spp.
18. Wolf Canis auririus
19. Fruit bat Cynoptirus sphinx
20. Porcupine Hystrix indica
21. Hispis hare Caprogus hispisdus
22. Slow Loris Nycticebus causeang
23. Otter Lutra lutra
24. Wild Dog Cuon alpinus
25. Orange billed Himalyan Squirrel Cirrus unicolor
26. Mangoose Herpester spp.
27. Musk Deer. Moschus moschiferous.
28. Binturong Arctictis binturong
29. Jungle cat Filis chaus.
30. Mole rat Bandicota bengalensis
31. Indian hare Lypus nigricolis.
32. Martin Martis spp.
33. House Mouse Mus musculus
34. Field Mouse Mus booduga
35. Goral Nemarahidus goral
36. Clouded Leopard Niofolis nibulosa
37. Palm Civet Paguna larvata
38. Wood cat Rattus blaufardi
39. House cat Rattus rattus
40. Fulvous fruit bat Tousettus leschinuitas
41. Indian fox Vulpis bengalensin
Common Name Scientific Name
Monitor lizard Tortoise
Python ( reticulate) King cobra
Common krait Banded krait
Viper Common cobra
Common Name Scientific Name
Greyheaded fishing eagle Ichuophaga nana
Crested serpent eagle pilernia cleala
Bearded vulture Gypactus barbatus
Forest eagle owl Bubo nipalensis
Collared pigmy owlet Tus bakkameena
Collared scope owl Laucidium brodei
Tragopan Tragopan blythii
Kaleej Pheasants Lophura leucemelona
Common hill patridge Arboraphila forqueola
Common pheasants Entropus simensia
Red Jungle fowl Gallus gallus
Peacock pheasants Polyplectron bicalcaratum
Pintailed green pigeons Treron apicauda
Rutous turtle dove Streptopolia orientalia
Marrnbacked imperial pigeon Ducula badia
Emarald dove Chalcophapa indica
Himalayan Jungle nightjar Caprimulgus indicus
Indian roller Coracias bengalensis
Chestnut threaded bee-eater Morapa leschanaulti
Bluethreated barbet Mengalaima lineata
Great barbet Megalaima virens
Great pied hornbill Buceros bicornis
Rufousnecked hornbill Aceros nipalensis
Goldenbacked throated woodepecker Dimopium shorii
Darjeeling pied woodpecker Picoides darjellensis
Redaered by woodpecker Lythipicus pyrrhotis
Bluenapped pitta Pitta nepanlensis
Mrs. Gould’s sunbird Aethopyga gapldinale
Nepal Yellow backed sunbird Aethopyga nipalensis
Black breasted sunbird Aethopyga saturata
Firetailed yellow backed sunbird Aethopyga ignicauda
Longtailed broadbill Serilophus lunatus
Red drumped swallow Hirundedaurice
Tyflers swallow Hirunderustice tyleri
Balcknapped ariole Oriolus chinesis
Himalayan tree pie Dendrocitta formosee
Bronzed drongo Dicrurus aeneus
Large brown thrush Zoothera menticola
Lesser racket-tailed drongo Dicrurus renifer
Large racket tailed drongo Dicrurus paradiseau
Black drongo Dicrurus adaimilis
Grey drongo Dicrurus leucephaecus
Clouded Leopard Niofolis nibulosa

The endangered species- both flora and fauna in Nagaland and measures taken by the Government to protect them and prevent extinction.
The local population being are intricately involved with the forests for their sustenance, be it agriculture, timber, small, timber, day to day use items or medicinal plants etc. These forest products are also their main source of economy. Therefore, when the main stay of the people is dependent on forest, destruction of forests is imminent and thereby endangering many valuable species. Due to the primitive method/ practice of cultivation (i.e slash burning) the rich Biodiversity of the state is dwindling year by year.
Most of species, both flora and fauna, appears to be endangered due to heavy biotic pressure/ interference and reckless deforestation. Their details are as follows.
Dipterocarpous macrocarpous (Hollong), Shorea assamica ( Makai) , Rodhodendron Spp. , Mesua ferra (Nahar), are rare and endangered spp. Panax gensing (Gensing) is found only in Tuensang district at higher altitude. It is endangered. Aquilaria agallocha (Agar )is also a endangered species. Rare and Endangered species of Orchids available in Nagaland are as follows,
Thunia 1 spp, Arundinaria graminifolia ( Bamboo orchid), Renenthera (Red vanda), ,Rhynchostylis ( fox tail), Pleoni, Phauis (ground orchid) 2 spp, Paphiopedilum 1 spp, Cymbidium tigrinum 1 spp.
The Govt. is taking measures for propagation conservation and protection of these spp. through different afforestation schemes.
The largest Asian mammal, Elephant is endangered spp. The other endangered spps are Melurses ursinus (Sloth Bear ), Prionodon pardicolor (Spotted linsang, Tiger-civet), Panthera tigris (Tiger) , Macaca assamensis (Tailed Pig). The Gaur, or Indian Bison in habitats in Intangki National Park and Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary and other hilly areas is facing extinction from Nagaland The different Horn bills and Tortoise are also endangered.
Recently (i.e. on 27.2.2002) the department and NEHU (Shillong) has conducted workshop in Dimapur on state level Biodiversity strategy and action plan for conservation and protection of various ecosystems. During workshop people from all walks of society have participated and a draft action plan has been prepared.

The largest species of rhododendron is the scarlet Rhododendron arboreum, examples of which reach a height of 65 feet(19.8 m) on Mount Japfu. Nagaland, India

1.Status of Nagaland Forest as on 31.01.2001 -
Out of the total land area of 16,57,583, hectares, forests occupy an area of approximately 8,62,930 ha -
Legal Status : Forests Areas (Ha) % of Total Forest Area
(a) Reserved Forests 8583 1
(b) Purchased Forests 19247 2.3
(c) Protected Forests 50756 5.9
(d) Wildlife Sanctuary 22237 2.6
(e) Village Forests
i. Virgin Forests 477827 55.4
ii. Degraded Forests 284280 32.9
862930 100
2. Ownership:
a) State 100823 11.7%
b) Co-operative - -
c) Private 762107 88.3%
3.Classification of forests
The details of various classes of forest types in the State during 2000-2001 are as under -
3.1. Forest area under Government control
(I) Reserved Forests -
a) Kohima Division (Rangapahar) 6,226.00 ha.
b) Mon Division (Singphan) 2,357.00 ha.
Total 8,583.00 ha.
(ii) Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Park
a) Intanki - Kohima District 20,202.00 ha.
b) Puliebadze - Kohima District 923.00 ha.
c) Fakim - Tuensang District 642.00 ha.
d) Rangapahar - Dimapur District 470.00 ha.
Total - 22,237.00 ha
3.2. Protected Forest
I. Kohima District
1. Jaluki Protected Forest 414.40 ha
II. Phek District
1. Shilloi 8,857.80 ha.
2. Sangtam-Kuki 8,401.97 ha.
3. Athumza 1,472.00 ha.
4. Chipoketami 2,000.00 ha.
Total - 20,731.77 ha.
III. Zunheboto District
1. Aochaklimi 62.16 ha
2. Suruhoto 138.57 ha
3. Lizatomi 146.00 ha.
4. Sapotami 32.00 ha.
5. Khamannbato 266.77 ha.
Total - 645.50 ha.
IV. Mokokchung District
1. Chubi 134.68 ha.
2. Minkong 275.32 ha
3. Longsa 18.00 ha.
Total - 428.00 ha.
V. Wokha District
1. Wokha 323.75 ha.
2. Aitepyong 233.10 ha.
3. Yikhum 42.00 ha.
Total - 598.85
VI. Tuensang District
1. Chessore 160.58 ha
2. Saramati 362.60 ha.
3. Konya 450.00 ha.
Total - 973.18 ha.
Grand Total 23791.70 ha.

4.Purchased Forests
Since the area under Government control in the state is very limited and quite inadequate for a mountainous state like Nagaland, the Department has purchased some forest land from private owners to take up plantations.
The total land purchased by the Department is 19222.44 ha. District-wise area of land purchased by the Department up to 2000-2001 is indicated below -
a) Kohima and Dimapur District 5,008.93 ha.
b) Mokokchung District 4,538.87 ha.
c) Wokha District 773.06 ha.
d) Zunheboto District 40.00 ha.
e) Phek District 757.27 ha.
f) Tuensang District 836.61 ha.
g) Mon District 7,292.26 ha.
Grant Total - 19,247.00 ha
5. Comparative situation of forest cover in 1999 and 1997 ( in Sq. Km.)

1999 Assessment 1997 Assessment Change

14,164 14,221 -57

6.Actual forest cover by density classes ( in Sq. Km.) in 1999 -

Dense forest Open forests Total
(Crown density (Crown density Forest
40%&above) below 40% ) cover
5137 9027 14164
7. Scrub Land and Non- Forest areas ( in Sq. Km.) in 1999 -
Scrub Non - Forest
14 2401
8.District-wise Forest Cover in Nagaland (in Sq. Km.) in 1997
District Geographical
area Forest cover
Forest Total Change Compared to 1995 Scrub
1. Kohima 4041 1775 1797 3572 + 278 14
2. Mon 1786 651 857 1508 -91 0
3. Mokokokchung. 1615 197 1140 1337 -68 0
4. Phek 2026 542 1154 1696 -83 0
5. Tuensang 4228 1247 2110 3357 -242 0
6. Wokha 1628 390 1189 1579 +106 0
7. Zunheboto 1255 335 780 1115 +43
Total 16579 5137 9027 14164 -57 14
9.Growing stock volume per hectares and Annual Increment -
(As per Forest Survey of Indian Report 1995 )
Growing Stock Volume/Ha Annual increment
(Million cum) (in cum) (0,000cum)
94,887 66.1 1903
10. Stratum-wise estimated Growing Stocks of Forests as per 1995 F S I Report-
Hard Wood Mixed Bamboo Miscellaneous
with conifer ( Cum ) ( Cum ) ( Cum )
114000 1077000 93696000
11. National Park and Wildlife Sanctuaries
National Park Wildlife sanctuaries
Area (in Sq. Km) Area (in Sq. Km)
202.02 34.5
(Source: The State Forest report 1997 and 199
As per the National Forests Policy, Forestry is to be regarded as a ‘Welfare Activity’ necessary for the survival of mankind. The revenue from Forestry Sector shall be only incidental. The State Government has by and large followed this policy. The amount of forests revenue collected during the period from 1985-86 to 1999-2000 is given below -
Year Revenue ( In Rs Lakhs )
1985-86 531.56
1986-87 608.73
1987-88 645.91
1988-89 557.31
1989-90 473.00
1990-91 508.85
1991-92 541.48
1992-93 351.00
1993-94 306.38
1994-95 220.75
1995-96 275.10
1996-97 152.53
1997-98 123.02
1998-99 291.83
1999-2000 166.28
Particulars of expenditure under both plan and non plan grant during the period of 1985-86 to 1999-2000 as shown below :

Year Plan
(Rs in Lakh)
(Rs in Lakh)

1985-86 381.96 337.48
1986-87 475.96 292.16
1987-88 390.83 303.43
1988-89 575.00 365.35
1989-90 663.00 365.00
1990-91 490.89 312.31
1991-92 489.35 341.01
1992-93 124.24 303.79
1993-94 349.86 355.98
1994-95 152.27 329.94
1995-96 369.26 688.57
1996-97 432.69 535.24
1997-98 216.02 699.27
1998-99 363.78 700.37
1999-2000 285.25 809.26
For management and preservation of wildlife in the State, the Department has a full-fledged wildlife wing under Chief Wildlife Warden, an officer of CCF rank. Wildlife Preservation Division was created during the year 1976-77 with Headquarter at Dimapur which is entrusted with following responsibilities
i. Intangki National Park 20202 ha .
ii. Zoological Park Kohima.
iii. Rangapahar Wildlife Sanctuary 470 ha.
iv. Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary 642 ha.
v. Puliebadze Wildlife Sanctuary 923 ha.
Zoological Park at Kohima
The Government has decided to shift the present Zoological Park to Dimapur at Rangapahar Wildlife Sanctuary, with a view to introduce many species of animals and birds of warm region. The present Zoological Park shall however be converted into captive breeding center for Tragopan .
Tragopan Breeding Project in London ( U. K.)
This Captive Breeding Project under the auspices of the World Pheasant Association was successful in breeding of Blythe’s Tragopan, but its quality and character have degenerated due to inbreeding. The Department is likely to send one more pair of birds to the association to minimise the risks of inbreeding, to the association in near future.
Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Park
i. The Intangki National Park covering an area of 20202 ha. has been maintained during the year. Radio Telecommunication installed during 1988-89 continued to function. The efforts to keep the park free of encroachers continued unabated.
ii. The Rangapahar Wildlife Sanctuary, Dimapur, covering an area of 470 ha. shall be converted into Deer Sanctuary in near future. The proposal is pending with the G.O.I.
iii. In addition to the above sanctuaries, the other two Wildlife Sanctuaries:-
(a) Puliebadze Wildlife Sanctuary in Kohima District covering an area of 923 ha was maintained. It is a natural habitat for Blyth’s Tragopan.
(b) Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary spread over 642 ha. was maintained.

Tragopan is one of the most beautiful birds among the Pheasants found in India. Out of five species of Tragopan found in the Himalayan region, Tragopan blythii (Jerdon) is found only in Nagaland. Tragopan blythii is the State Bird of Nagaland. The bird is hunted down indiscriminately and has become endangered species- almost on the verge of extinction as steps have been taken for its conservation Neither by the Government or local communities so far. It belongs to the Order – Galliformes, Family – Phasianidae & Species –Tragopan blythii.
It is a rare and endangered pheasant found only in Nagaland. Though no evidence of migration from the Himalayan is recorded, it presumed to be so. It is available particularly in higher elevation ranging from 1800 to 2500 metres above M.S.L. The bird is found in areas such as Japfu range, Dzuku valley in Kohima District, Pfutsero, Meluri in Phek District, foothills of Saramati, Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary, Noklak in Tuensang District and Satoi range in Zunheboto District.


Local Names:
Gnu ( Angami ), Aogho ( Chang ) , Chingto ( Kuki) , Hur huri ( Assam and Miri ) , Aghah ( Sema).
Requirement of Climate and Habitat:
They prefer high hills where the climate is cold and temperate where extremely cool during winter and occasional occurrence of frost is there in higher altitude. Temperature varying 5 to 25 Degrees centigrade and average rainfall varying from 200 to 250 Cm is most suitable for their habitat. In natural surrounding they usually live in a dense evergreen forests with moderate undergrowth. Affects thick undergrowth in heavy evergreen forests. Their common places of occurrence are along nallahs and streams where freshly succulent vegetative growth of shoots and ferns is luxuriant and plentiful.
Habits and Morphological Characteristics:
The most striking characteristic of these birds is their beautiful plumage of the males. The hens are not brilliantly coloured. It is of the size of a chicken. The male has an orange red in the neck with a greenish blue patch at the lower side of the face. The feathers are spotted /dotted with a brownish red colour. In males, around the eyes is covered by white and black spots. When courting the cock inflates the large brightly coloured patch on the throat and erects two long fleshy horns above the eyes. This phenomenon is seen when excited only. The hens are greyish brown and of similar size. The tails of Tragopans are laterally compressed . The female has shorter tail than that of male. They are terrestrial birds but roost on the branches of trees not very high from the ground at nights spending most of the day time on the ground scratching for food. They do not fly high above and long distance. Hence they climb step by step till they reach their roosting branches. They roost in a particular place and make it more or less permanent and flight is resorted to as and when dangers of disturbance noticed. Of all other pheasants, Tragopan is wonderfully coloured exhibiting all the dramatic colours of nature in its magnificient plumage. They form a group of 3 or 4 members in a given place. The male is very aggressive, leads the group and defends their territory from intrusion by male of other groups of the same species. The migration takes place only when the fragmentation of their habitats occurs. They occupy their territory for food and breeding as big as one Sq. km. In the process of occupation of territory, the male fight with the intruders sometimes ends with casualty or fatal.
Feeding in Natural Habitat:
During the month of March every year, they select a breeding place usually on a rocky hideout where the nest with dried leaves and twigs are made. Having secured breeding territory and their partner, the male display of courtship in many ways. Usually the female takes initiative and excites the male for mating. When the male gets excited its two fleshy horns above the eyes become erected and seen distinctively. Fanning and erecting the tail and dancing in front of the female is observed. . The mating season starts from the month of March and takes about a month or so. The mating language produce by male is “MAO, MAO, MAO” with a deep base sound and the sound produced by the female is a sharp quacking sound forming into musical tune. In natural environment, they lay 2 to 6 eggs per clutch but hatch out only 75 % of the eggs laid. The incubation of eggs by female takes 28 to 31 days. While incubating the female turns all the eggs in a regular interval in order to maintain uniform temperature. When female comes out for food the male use to guard the nest with excitement. While hatching, the female does not roost on a tree but remains with the chicks/eggs.
Mother’s Care for Young Ones:
As long as the chicks are not capable of climbing on trees, mother remains with the chicks on the ground at night. For about a month or so mother takes care of the chicks. Like domestic fowl, the chicks run a round with their mother immediately after hatching out. As long as the chicks are unable to feed themselves the mother remains with them on the ground, even at night. After one and half month they do not depend on their mother for food and roam about freely.
Mortality in young stages in natural habitat is also very high due to preying by rodents, natural diseases. Very often they fall from steep rock and die. When the chicks attains two to three months old the chance of mortality is less.
Food Habit:
They are omnivorous in habit. They eat mostly ferns, fleshy and succulent/tender vegetative shoots, white ants, insects, snails, worms, beetles, pebbles, feed on grains, seeds and fruits found in their natural habitats.
Need for Conservation:
The Tragopan is being hunted for its flesh and beautiful plumage/ feathers. There is a lobby for the sale of male Tragopan for its plumage resulting in abrupt reduction in the male population. A pair of Tragopan is priced at Rs 15,000 to 20,000 in the black market . Some villagers who are expert in capturing are being engaged for this venture. Due to human pressure, the habitats of these beautiful birds have been shrinking rapidly and in some pockets even fragmented. The range of the species becomes divided into many small, isolated fragments. Small relict bird populations still remain in fragments of the original biotope, but because of their small size they are susceptible to random genetic and demographic processes, and the possible consequences of inbreeding. The risk of each of these mini-populations quickly dying out is thus great. Population management in such cases is necessary : natural habitat management ( in-situ) for isolated populations is possible, parallel with the management under Captive Breeding ( Ex-situ) to prevent further loss of genetic material in sub-population. These birds are endemic to Nagaland but have become endangered and therefore immediate remedial measures to save these birds from further depletion calls for ecological attention. The Tragopan pheasant is included under part –111 of Schedule- 1 of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Objectives and for Tragopan Conservation Management:
In order to ensure the sustenance of viable populations of Tragopan in its natural habitats and to save from its extinction, the management strategy has to be adopted in ex-situ with reference to in-situ conservation
(a). Ex-situ Management:
The goal of ex-situ (off-site) conservation is to provide support the survival of species in their natural environment (in-situ). For ex-situ management, the existing Kohima Zoological Park will be improvised and put into use as Captive Breeding Center which was established during 1973.
To build up stock of the species in captivity, breeding in captivity and releasing it back into wild in order to reinforce/ supplement the natural populations.
To provide an avenue for conducting a research on the birds & to impart education to the mass for its conservation campaign.
(b) In-situ Management:
1. To identify and prevent further fragmentation of natural habitats of the species.
2. To save the species in in-situ environment.
3. To maintain ecological balance.
4. To elicit support and ensure participation of the villagers in its conservation.
The trend of Tragopan population in Nagaland is as follows:
The census conducted during 1989 in Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary, being natural habitat of Tragopan counted 309 Male and 181 Female, altogether 571 Nos. In Kohima Zoological captivity, the population is as follows:
Four differentspecies, both residents and migratory, are found in Nagaland. They are GreatPied Honbill (Bucerous bicornis), Rufousneccked Hornbill ( Aceros nepalensis), White throated Brown Hornbill (Ptilolaemus tickeli), and Assam Wreathrd Hornbill (Rhyticeros undulates). Honbills are fascinating birds, of which, the Great pied Hornbills a large pied black white bird with an enormous horned shape black and yellow bill and surrounded by a peculiar broad double pecked. The bird is about 51’’ in length and has a tail of 18.5.Female is smaller and measures on an average of 46’. They call sounds like a barking roar.
These birds are generally found in Evergreen forests in pairs or small parts of 3-5.They largely feeds on fruits especially wild figs (Ficus spp.) and fruits of Bonsum (Phobe goalparensis) and other berries and flowers (Bauhinia spp.) and variety of insects, lizards, mice, snakes and other small animals. The birds have regular time schedule over fixed routes to and from for their feeding and roosting places which are followed everyday.
The nesting season is generally in the month of March and April. During nesting a large, natural hollow is selected in a lofty tree in dense evergreen forests in species like Callophyllum tomentosum and other species often at 60 feet or more from the ground. After eggs have been laid the female blocks up the entrance of the hollow with a wall until there is only a narrow slit left, with in this the female incarcerates or imprisons her self. This phenomenon is called ‘‘Walling up the wife’’. She is then fed by the male passing throughout the period. The usual clutch is 3-5 eggs, but the larger hornbills may lay 1 or 2. Inc ubation lasts 1-2 months and chicks take6-7 weeks to fledge. After the young hatches out, the female comes out and feeds her young along with the mate.
There is the Mount Kist forest under Jaluki Forst Division which is well known for migration of different types of hornbills especially the great pied hornbill and Rufous necked hornbill, The migration of the hornbills is a regular feature during th months of November to February. The hornbills migrate in these areas. Due to heavy biotic interference, habitat is miserably degraded and there is lack of protection of these birds and, consequently, No. of migrating birds to this area is significantly dwindled. Migration of hornbills to natural occurrence is usually observed.
Management Practice:
A project for conservation of these wonderful and beautiful birds, whose Number. is dwindling day by day due to degradation and loss of their habitat, has been submitted to the Govt. of India by recognising and identifying Mount Kista Forests as a ‘‘ Bio diversity Conservation Area” for approval.

Orchids are quite unlike other plants, stand apart by their fantastic range of structure and formation of their flowers and seed production. Every thing about the orchid is different and perhaps the makes people orchid maniacs
The name ‘orchid’ is derived from the greek word ‘orchis’, Theophrastus, a Greek naturalist refereed to a group of plants called orchis as far as back as 300 B.C. it refers to the roots of this genus which are infact testiculate tubers occurring in pairs
Orchids belong to one of the largest families of flowering plants. There are about 26000 wild species distributed all over the world. However, wild species of orchids distributed all over the world. However wild species are estimated from 20,000 to 35, 000 under 800 genera by different authors. They are mostly perennial plants and bloom annually. Flowers of several genera last for their lasting and beautiful flowers.
The majority of the orchids are epiphytic growing upon tree trunks. Some grow as terrestrial and others as lithophytic. A few are saprophytic.
The orchid plants are distinct in type of vegetation structure and flower architecture. On the basis of vegetative structure and its growth, orchids may be grouped as:
1. Monopodial: these orchids grow continuously in one direction, season after season and bear aerial roots.
2. Sympodial: in this case after one season growth, the lateral growth is produced in next growing season.
3. Pseudomonopodial: these are intermediate between monopodial and sympodial in growth pattern.

The most important mechanism of orchids to retain moisture as well as to draw moisture and nutrition from the air is performed by pseudo bulbs and a loose spongy tissue as covering of aerial roots of lithophytic and epiphytic orchids.

Ladys Slipper orchid
An orchid flower has six segments, arranged in two whorls the outer world consists of three petals one of the petals is variously modified and designed. It is called lip or labellum. During the development of flowers, it takes 180 degrees turn on its axis a process known as resupination. The size of the flower ranges from size of pinhead to 25-cm diameter.

Coelogyna Cristata

The Northeast, including Nagaland is blessed with tropical to alpine humid forest with heavy rainfall and high humidity which provide suitable habitat for this unique natural heritage. There are over thousand species of orchids in India out of this more than fifty percent, i.e. about 650 orchid species grow in Northeast India. Nagaland can boast for over 360 orchid species.
The economic importance attached to the orchids has led to their wide spread and ruthless exploitation that has resulted in depletion of the orchid flora of Nagaland state. Large scale deforestation and age old shifting agriculture have brought about destruction in natural habitat of these valuable species including several graceful orchids have declined and some of them have become extinct while many are seriously endangered. If proper conservation measures are not taken, the state of Nagaland is sure to loss many more of its beautiful orchids.
1 Acampa papillosa Dec-Jan Zunheboto,Pesao
2 Acampa rigida April-May Phek, Aghnato
3 Acampa wightiana Nov –Dec Chesore
4 Acanthephippium striatum July – Augu Jalukie, Doyang
5 Acanthephippium sylhetense May –June Longwa, Chen,Jalukie
6 Aerides crassifolium April-May Dzuja,Tseminyu,
Longjang, Changtongya
7 Aerides fieldingii May –June Changki, Tuli, Mon
8 Aerides multiflorum Jun –Aug Phek, Viswema
9 Aerides odoratum May – June Mokokchung, Changtongya, Chare
10 Anoectochilus crispus Jun –Aug Japfu range,
Chentang, Pfutsero
11 Anoectochilus elwesil Jun – Jul Japfu range, Hellipong.
12 Anoectochilus grandiflorus Jul – Aug Japfu range, Pesao,chan
13 Anoectochilus griffithi Aug-Sep Saramati, Dzukou
14 Anoectochilus roxburghii Oct Meinkong,
Longkhum, Pesao, Sangsangyu
15 Anthogonium gracile Aug –Sep Aghunato, Surohoto
16 Aphyllorchis montana Jul –Aug Changlangshu
17 Aphyllorchis prainii Jul –Aug Doyang,Sanis,Mangkolemba, Aonokpho
18 Appendicula cornuata Aug Wokha, Doyang, Changki,Mon
19 Arachis bilinguis Mar-Apr Sanis, Changki
20 Arachis cathcartii Mar-Apr Longtok,Hellipon,Chesore
21 Arundina graminifolia Jun-Oct Chesore,Chare,
22 Ascocentrum ampullaceum Mar- Apr Peren,Phek, Noklak
23 Ascocentrum curvifolium May-Jun Hellipong, Changlangshu,
24 Ascocentrum micranthum Jun- Aug Japfurange, Viswema
25 Ascocentrum miniatum Mar – May Japfurange, Viswema , Kohima
26 Brachycorythis obcordata Aug –Sep Japfurange,
27 Bulbophyllum aculiflorum Jun-Jul Japfurange,
28 Bulbophyllum affine Jun –Jul Kohima, Viswema, Hellipong
29 Bulbophyllum andersonii Oct- Sep Japfu range,
Khonoma, Hellipong
30 Bulbophyllum careyanum Oct-Feb Japfu range,Khonama,
31 Bulbophyllum caudatum Jun-Jul Japfurange, Khonama, Peren, Pfutsero
32 Bulbophyllum cylindraceum Dec-Jan Japfu range, Viswema
33 Bulbophyllum dyeranum Jul-Sep Mon, Wakching, Tuli
34 Bulbophyllum elatum May- Jun Japfu range, Dzulake,peren
35 Bulbophyllum eulepharum Aug Hellipong, Chentang
36 Bulbophyllum gambeiel Jul-Aug Meinkong,
37 Bulbophyllum guttulatum Aug-Sep Japfu range, Dzulake, Pfutsero
38 Bulbophyllum gymnopus Oct-Nov Kohima, Khonoma
39 Bulbophyllumhelenae May-Jun Japfu, Pfutzero, Dzulake, Hellipong
40 Bulbophyllum hirtum Nov-Feb Japfurange, Pfutzero Saramati, Sangsangyu
41 Bulbophyllum hymenanthum May Meinkong, Longkhum
42 Bulbophyllum leopardinum Oct-Nov Chentang, Hellipong
43 Bulbophyllum leptanthum Jul Changtongya, Sanis, Dzuja
44 Bulbophyllum odoratissimum Jun-Aug Tseminyu, Phek, Meinkong, Longleng
45 Bulbophyllum ornatissimum Oct-Nov Wokha, Longkhum, Meinkong
46 Bulbophyllum pencillium Aug-Sep Longkhim,
Hellipong, Viswema, Khonoma
47 Bulbophyllum piluliferum May Changtongya, Longleng, Chara, Wakching
48 Bulbophyllum polyrhizum Mar-Apr Monkolemba, Aonokpho, Changtongya, Sanis,
49 Bulbophyllum reptans Oct-Nov Mon, Wakching, Doyang
50 Bulbophyllum rigidum May- Jun Mongkolemba, Medziphema
51 Bulbophyllum rothschildianum Sep-Oct Longsa,Chara
52 Bulbophyllum roxburghii Sep Wakching
53 Bulbophyllum secundum Jun-Jul Peren, Dzulake
Tseminyu, Longkhum, Longkhim
54 Bulbophyllum striatum Oct Kohima, Viswema, Saramati range
55 Bulbophyllum umbellatum May- Jun Japfu range, Viswema, Dzulake
56 Bulbophyllum uniflorum Jun-Aug Longkhim, Hellipong
57 Bulbophyllum viridiforum Oct-Nov Longkhum, Wokha
58 Bulbophyllum wallichi Oct-Nov Longeng,Chesore, Longkhum,
59 Calanthe alismifolia May-Aug Dzukou,
Japfu range
Saramati range
60 Calanthe alpina Jul-Aug Dzukou,
Japfu range
61 Calanthe angusta Apr-May Dzulake,
62 Calanthe biloba Sep-Oct Japfu range,
63 Calanthe brevicornu May-Jun Sangsangyu,
Japfu range
64 Calanthe chloroleuca Apr-May Dzukou
65 Calanthe clavate Feb-Mar Chnaglangshu,
Pesao, Pangsa,
Japfu range, Saramati range
66 Calanthe densiflora Oct Dzuja, Peren, Phek
67 Calanthe foestermannii Jul Rangapahar,
68 Calanthe gracilis Oct Chesore, Longleng,
69 Calantheherbacea Jun-Jul Dzukou, Japfu range
70 Calanthe manni Mar-Apr Sanis, Changki,
Longleng, Tobu
71 Calanthe musuca Aug-Sep Kohima,Viswema, Sangsangyu, Longkhim
72 Calanthe plantaginea Mar-Apr Japfu range, Hellipong, Longtok
73 Calanthe puberula Jul-Aug Japfu range, Saramati range, Hellipong,
74 Calanthe tricarinata May-Jul Viswema, Khonoma, Peren, Longleng, Tuensang
75 Calanthe triplicata Jul-Oct Merapani, Tsurang,
76 Calanthe vaginata May-Jun Merapani, Tsurang valley, Tuli, Naginimora
77 Calanthe vestita Nov- Dec Japfu range
78 Calanthe whiteana May Saramati, Japfu range
79 Cephalanthera ongifolia May – Jul Japfu range,
Chesore, Longtok
80 Ceratostylis himalaica May – Jun Chengtang, Noklak, Pangsa
81 Ceratostylis teres May- Jun Tezit, Mon, Wakching
82 Cheirostylis griffithii Oct-Nov Japfu range, Hellipong, Chentang
83 Cheirostylis pusilla Nov- Dec Viswema, Peren
84 Cleisocentron trichromum Jul- Aug Japfu range, Saramati range
85 Cleisostoma aspersum Jul-Aug Jalukie, Rangapahar, Medziphema
86 Cleisostoma filliforme Aug- Sep Kohima, Viswema
87 Cleisostoma simondii Aug- Sep Longchang, Chare
88 Cleisostoma striatum Jul- Aug Tsurang valley, Chare
89 Cleisostoma subulatum Jul- Aug Intangki, Jalukie
90 Cleisostoma racemiferum Jun-Jul Kohima, Dzuja, Medziphema, Tseminyu
91 Coelogyne barbata Sep –Dec Japfu range, Hellipong, chentang, Lonwa
92 Coelogyne corymbosa Apr- May Noklak, Longwa, Longkhum, Viswema, Wokha, Tseminyu
93 Coelogyne cristata Mar-Apr Longleng, Longwa,Chare, Longkhim
94 Coelogyne flaccida Mar –Apr Japfu range, Tuensang, Phek, Pfutsero
95 Coelogyne fuscescens Oc- Dec Japfu range, Viswema, chentang, Hellipong
96 Coelogyne griffithi Apr-May Mokokchung, Changtongya, Longlang, Chare
97 Coelogyne hitendrae Apr- May Sangsangyu, Pangsa, Noklak, Chesore, Samator
98 Coelogyne longipes Mar- May Longwa
99 Coelogyne micrantha Feb-Mar Chentang, Hellipong, Japfu range
100 Coelogyne nitida May-Jun Japfu rnge, Pfutsero, Phek
101 Coelogyne occuitata Jun –Jul Japfu range, Pfutsero
102 Coelogyne ovalis Oct- Nov Viswema, Khonoma, Chentang
103 Coelogyne prolifera Mar –Apr Chentang, Phek
104 Coelogyne punctulata Jan –Feb Japfu range, Hellipong, Saramati
105 Coelogyne raizada May-Jun Japfu range, Saramati, Sangsangyu, Pangsa
106 Coelogyne rigida Jun- Jul Tuensang, Hellipong
107 Coelogyne schultesii May- Jun Wokha, Sanis
108 Coelogyne stricta May-Jun Viswema, Kohima, Tseminyu
109 Coelogyne viscosa Jan- Feb Lonwa, Longkhum
110 Corymborkis veratrifolia Mar-May Intangki, Rangapahar, Medziphema
111 Cremastra wallichiana Apr-May
112 Cryptochilus lutea May- Jun Kohima, Pfusero, Hellipong
113 Cryptochilus sanguineus Jun-Aug Japfu range, Pfutsero, Phek, Hellipong, Chentang, Wokha
114 Cymbidium aloifolium Apr- May Ontangki, Rangapahar, Tsurang, Saring, Tuli, Tizit, Namsa
115 Cymbidium cochleare Oict- Nov Japfu range, Pfutsero, Hellipong,Chentang
116 Cymbidium devonianum May- Jun Saramati, Hellipong.
117 Cymbidium elegans Oct- Nov Japfu range, Phek,Pesao
118 Cymbidium ensifolium Nov-Dec Japfu range,Pfutsero, Hellipong, Longtok, Chentang.
119 Cymbidium eburneum Mar-apr Viswema, Japfu range, Noklak, Pangsa, Pesao
120 Cymbidium iridioidea Oct-Nov Japfu range, Hellipong,
Sangsangyu, Saramati
121 Cymbidium lancifolium Jun-Jul Hellipong,Longtok, Chentang.
122 Cymbidium longifolium Sep-Oct Japfu range, Saramati, Hellipong
123 Cymbidium lowianum Apr-May Chentang, Hellipong, Japfu range
124 Cymbidium macrorhizon Jun –Jul Meinkong, Phek, Kohima, Viswema
125 Cymbidium mastersii Oct-Nov Viswema,Peren
126 Cymbidium pendulam Apr-May Saring, Tuli, Namsa, Naginimora
127 Cymbidium tigrinum Apr Japfu range, Viswema, Pfutsero
128 Cymbidium tracyanum Oct-Nov Chentang, Sangsangyu, Hellipong
129 Dendrobium acinaciforme Jun- Jul Medziphema, Tuli, Mon, Tizit, Saring,Aonokpho, Tsurang valley
130 Dendrobium anceps Apr- May Pagas, Tobu, Peren, Jalukie
131 Dendrobium aphyllum Apr- May Dzuja, Jalukie, Sanis,Doyang
132 Dendrobium bensoniae May- Jun Kohima, Wazeho, Khepri, Samator
133 Dendrobium bicameratum Aug- sep Doyang, Jalukie, Chare
134 Dendrobium candidum Apr- May Saramati, Japfu range, Phek
135 Dendrobium chrysanthum Sep- Oct Wokha, Mokokchung,Longkhum, Changki
136 Dendrobium chrystoxum Apr-May Jalukie, Medziphema, Dzuja, Changtongya, Longleng, Akuluto
137 Dendrobium crepidatum Mar-May Peren, Phek
207 Dendrobium densiflorum Apr- May Longkhim,Noklak, Longsa,
Peren, Doyang,Longwa.
139 Dendrobium denudans Sep-Oct Pesao, Changlangshu
140 Dendrobium devonianum May- Jun Viswema, Peren, Pfutsero, Noklak, Tuensang, Changki.
141 Dendrobium eriaeflorum Sep- Oct Viswema, Phek
142 Dendrobium falconeri May- June Japfu range, Dzukou, Longtok,Pangsa.
143 Dendrobium farmeri Apr- May Longsa, Akuloto,Chesore
144 Dendrobiumfimbriatum Apr-May Dzuja, Tseminyu,Peren,
145 Dendrobium formosum May-Jun Viswema,Japfu range, Peren
146 Dendrobium gibsonil Jul-Aug Mokokchung,
147 Dendrobium heterocarpum Apr Longkhim,
Japfu range,
148 Dendrobium hookerianum Apr-May Dzuja,
Mon, Tizit.
149 Dendrobium infundibulam Apr-May Hellipong,
150 Dendrobium jenkinsii Apr-May Saramati range,
151 Dendrobium lindleyi Feb-Mar Kohima,
152 Dendrobium longicornu Oct-Nov Japfu range, Chentang, Hellipong, Saramati, Pesao
153 Dendrobium moschatum May-Jun Kiphire,
154 Dendrobium nobile Apr-May Peren
155 Dendrobium ochreatum Apr-May Viswema
156 Dendrobium porphyrochilum Sep-Oct Chentang,
157 Dendrobium primulinum Mar-Apr Dzuja
158 Dendrobium pulchellum Apr-May Changlangshu,
159 Dendrobium stuposum Jun-Jul Noklak,
160 Dendrobium terminata Sep-Oct Jalukie,
161 Dendrobium thysiflorum Apr-May Longkhim,

162 Dendrobium transparens Apr-May Viswema,
163 Dendrobium wardianum Apr-May Japfu range,
164 Dendrobium williamsonii Mar-apr Viswema,

165 Diplomeria hirsuta Jun-jul Dzukou
Japfu rang,
166 Diplomeria pulchelia Aug-Sep Japfurange,
167 Diplomeria championi Jul-Aug Jalukie,
168 Epigeneium amplum Oct-Nov Kohima,
169 Epigeneium fuscescens
Oct-Nov Phek,
170 Epigeneium rotundatum Apr-May Pfutsero,
171 Eria acevata Jun-Jul Jalukie,
172 Eria alba Jun-Jul Noklak,
173 Eria amica Apr Kiphrie,
174 Eria bambusifolia Dec-Feb Chentang,
Japfu range
175 Eria biflora Aug-Sep Chentang,
176 Eria bractesces Apr-May Medziphema,
177 Eria coronaria Oct-Nov Japfu range,
178 Eria dasyphylla May-Jun Jalukie,
179 Eria excavata Jun-Jul Viswema,
180 Eria graminifolia Jul-Aug Japfu range,
181 Eria muscicola Aug-Sep Kohima,
182 Eria paniculata Feb-Mar Peren,
183 Eria pannea Apr-May Pangsa,
184 Eria spicata Jul-Aug Viswema,
185 Eria stricta Dec-Feb Peren,
Saramati range
186 Eria vittata Mar-Apr Japfu range
187 Eulophia bicallosa Mar-Apr Intangki,
188 Eulophia graminea Mar-Apr Meluri,
189 Eulophia nuda Jun-Jul Namsa,
190 Flickingeria fimbriata May-Jun Longjang,
191 Flickingeria fugax May Peren,
192 Galeola falconeri Jul-Aug Peren,
193 Galeola lindleyana Jul-Aug Japfu range,
194 Gastrochilus acutifolium Nov-Dec Longkhum,
195 Gastrochilus calceolaris Mar-Apr Japfu range,
196 Gastrochilus distichus Jan-Feb Viswema,
197 Gastrochilus inconspicuum Jun-Jul Rangapahar,
198 Gastrochilus pseudodisticus Sep-Oct Peren,
199 Geodorum densiflorum Jun-Jul Japfu range,
200 Goodyera foliosa Sep-Oct Hellipong,
201 Goodyera fusca Aug-Sep Dzulake,
202 Goodyera hispida Sep Japfu range,
203 Goodyera procera Apr-May Dzukou
204 Goodyera repens May Japfu range
205 Goodyera schiechtendaliana Oct-Nov Chentang,
206 Goodyera secundiflora Oct-Nov Japfu range,
207 Goodyera viridiflora Jul-Aug Meinkong,
208 Habennaria acuifera Jul- Aug Phek,
209 Habennaria dentata Aug- Sep Phek,
210 Habennaria ensifolia Jul- Aug Pfutsero
Japfu range
211 Habennaria furcifera Jul-Aug Japfu range,
212 Habennaria intermedia Jul-aug Chentang,
213 Habennaria malleifera Aug-Sep Doyang,
214 Habennaria pactinata Jul-Aug Japfu range
215 Habennaria stenopetala Aug-Sep Pfutsero,
216 Herminium lanceum Jul-Aug Kohima,
217 Herminium macrophyllum Jul- Aug Chentang,
218 Herminium monorchis Jul-Aug Japfu,
219 Hetaeria rubens Dec-Jan Viswema,
220 Hygrochilus parishii May-Jun Viswema,
221 Kingidium deliciosum Jul-Aug Tuensang,
212 Kingidium taenialis May-Jun Kiphire,
213 Liparis assamica Oct-nov Tsurang,
214 Liparis bistriate Jul-Aug Changlangshu,
215 Liparis biturberculata May-Jun Japfu range,
216 Liparis bootanensis Aug Japfu range,
217 Liparis caespitosa Jul-Aug Dzulake,
218 Liparis cordifolia Sep-Oct Pulibadze,
219 Liparis delicatula Aug-Sep Dzulake,
220 Liparis distans Oct-Nov Japfu range,
221 Liparis longipes Oct-Nov Japfu range
222 Liparis nervosa Jul-aug Noklak,
223 Liparis odorata Jul-Aug Dzuja,
224 Liparis pardoxa Jul-Aug Pangsa,
225 Liparis petiolata May Japfu range,
226 Liparis plantaginea Jul-Jul Japfu range
227 Liparis platyrachis Aug Dzulake,
228 Liparis pulchella Jun-Jul Kohima,
229 Liparis resupina Oct-Nov Chesore,
230 Liparis viridiflora Oct-Nov Chare,
231 Luisia inconspicua Jun-Jul Jalukie,
232 Luisia prachystachys Mar-Apr Jalukie,
233 Luisia prachystachys Mar-Apr Pfutsero,
234 Luisia teritifolia May-Jun Naginimora, Namsa
235 Luisia trichorhiza Mar-Apr Viswema,
236 Luisia zeylanica Mar-Apr Viswema,
Japfu range
237 Malaxis acuminata May-Jun Pulibadze,
238 Malaxis biaurita Jul-Aug Chesore,
239 Malaxis cylindroatachya Jul-Aug Longsa,
240 Malaxis josephiana May-Jun Japfu,
241 Malaxis khasiana Jun-Jul Phek
242 Malaxis latifolia Jun-Jul Mokokchung,
243 Micropera mannii Jun-Jul Peren,
244 Micropera rostrata May-Jun Kohima,
245 Monomera barbata Feb Tuli,
246 Neogyne gardneriana Oct-Nov Chentang,
247 Neotianthe secundiflora Aug-Sep Dzukou,
248 Neottia listeroides Jul-Sep Dzukou,
249 Nephelaphyllum cordifolium Jun-Jul Peren,
250 Nervilia aragoana Jun-Jul Pangsa,
251 Nervilia prainiana May-Jun Dzukou
252 Oberonia acaulis Oct-Dec Peren,
253 Oberonia clarkel Oct Changtongya,
254 Oberonia ensiformis Nov Peren,
255 Oberonia griffithiana Mar-Apr Longkhum,
256 Oberonia iridifolia Sep-Nov Kohima, Tuensang,
257 Oberonia longilabris Jul-Sep Meinkong,
258 Oberonia mannii Jun-Jul Kohima,
259 Oberonia micrantha Jul-Aug Viswema,
260 Oberonia obcordata Jul-Aug Kohima,
261 Oberonia orbicularis Nov-Dec Mokokchung,
262 Oberonia pachyrachis Aug-Sep Viswema,
263 Oberonia pyrulifera Sep-Oct Longkhum,
264 Oberonia recurva Jul-Aug Longkhum,
265 Oreochis foliosa Jun-Jul Meinkong,
266 Ornithochilus difformis Jun-Jul Viswema,
267 Otochilus alba Jun Japfu range,
268 Otochilus fusca Nov-Dec Noklak,
269 Otochilus lancilabius Oct-Nov Japfu range,
270 Pachystoma senile Mar-Apr Phek,
271 Panasia unifllora Apr-May Tseminyu,
272 Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum Apr-May Japfu range
273 Papiopedilum insigne Oct-Nov Noklak,
274 Paplionanthe longicornu Sep-Oct Viswema,
275 Paplionanthe teres Feb-Mar Dzuja,
Changtongya, Aonokpho,
276 Pecteilis gigantea Sep-Oct Longkhim,
277 Pecteilis susannae Jul-Aug Japfu range Dzulake,
278 Pelanthanthera insectifera Aug-Sep Medziphema,
279 Perisrtylus affinis Jul-aug Dzukou,
280 Perisrtylus chloranthus Jul-Aug Longkhim,
281 Perisrtylus constictus Jul-Aug Changlangshu,
282 Perisrtylus densus Jul-Aug Tobu,
283 Perisrtylus falla Jul-Aug Dzukou,
Japfu range
284 Perisrtylus goodyeroides Jul-Aug Dzukou,
285 Perisrtylus mannii Jul-Aug Changlangshu,
286 Perisrtylus prainii Aug-Sep Noklak

Panax pseudo-gensing (Gensing),
Taxus baccata (Yew),


Aquilaria agallocha (Agar),
Solanum khasianum,
Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi),
Aegle marmelos (Bel),
Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpgandha),
Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudraksha),
Dioscorea deltoides (Kath Aloo),
Emblica officinalis (Amla),
Swertia chirata (Chirata),
Rubia cordifolia,
Oroxylum indicum,
Clerodendrum colebrookianum,
Passiflora edulis
List of some commercially viable medicinal plants suggested for cultivation in North Eastern Region.
Sl. No Botanical Name
1 Acacia concinna
2 Acorus calamus
3 Aegle marmelos
4 Adhatoda vasika
5 Andrographis paniculata
6 Asparagus racemosus
7 Azadirachta indica
8 Bacopa monniera
9 Boerhaavia difusa
10 Boswellia serreta
11 Cassia angustifolia
12 Cassia tora
13 Celastrus paniculata
14 Centella asiatica
15 Commiphora mukul
16 Coleus forskolii
17 Costus speciosus
18 Cyprus rotundus
19 Eclipta alba
20 Embelia ribes
21 Emblica officinalis
22 Ephedra vulgaris
23 Eugenia jambolana
24 Garcinia cambogia
25 Garcinia indica
26 Gloriosa superba
27 Glycyrrhiza glabra
28 Gymnema sylvestre
29 Hemidesmus indicus
30 Holarrhena antidysenterica
31 Ipomea hederacea
32 Lawsonia alba/inerm’s
33 Mappia foledia
34 Morinda citrifolia
35 Ocimum sanctum
36 Passiflora incarnata
37 Phyllanthus niruri
38 Plantago ovata husk
39 Psoralea corilifolia
40 Rubia cordifolia
41 Ruta graveolens
42 Salacia reticulata
43 Taxus baccata
44 Terminalia belerica
45 Tribulus terrestris
46 Trigonellia foenum gralceum
47 Urginea indica
48 Valeriana wallichi
49 Vincea rosea
50 Withania somnifera
1. Tectona grandis ( Teak)
2. Gmelina arborea ( Gamari)
3. Melia composita ( Ghora neem)
4. Terminalia myriocarpa ( Hollock)
5. Artocarpus chaplasa ( Sam)
6. Chickrassia tabularis ( Bogipoma)
7. Duabanga sonneritoides ( Khokan)
8. Anthocephalus Cadamba (Kadam)
9. Albizia procera (Koroi)
10. Michelia champaca (Tita chap)
Middle Elevation Zone : 750m-1500m(2500’ 5000’
The species suitable for this zone are :
1. Gmelina arborea (Gamari)
2. Terminalia myriocarpa (Hollock)
3. Artocarpus chaplasa (Sam)
4. Chickrasia tabularis (Bogipoma)
5. Pinus petula, P.caribea (Pines)
6. Albizia procera (Koroi)
7. Betula alnoides
8. Melia composita (Ghora neem)
9. Lannea axillaries (Naga neem)
10. Michelia champaca (Tita sopa)
High Elevation Zone : 1500m-2000m, (5000’ 6666) or up to suitable cultivable limit
The species suitable for this zone ar
1. Pinus spp. (Pine)
2. Betula alnoides (Birch)
3. Lannea axillaries (Naga neem)
4. Cedrella (Poma)
5. Alnus nepalensis (Alder)
6. Melia composita (Ghora neem)
7. Terminalia myriocarpa (Hollock)
8. Artocarpus chaplasa (Sam)
Seeds should be collected from healthy, mature, and vigorously growing trees. Different Trees mature and produce seed at different seasons of the year; hence, it is good to know the fruiting and ripening seasons of different Trees to enable collection of seeds in good time.
Tectona grandis (Teak) ripens in November to January
Gmelina arborea (Gamari) “ June to August
Melia composita (Ghora neem) “ November to January
Termimalia myriocarpa (Holloc “ November to January
Artocarpus chaplasa “ July to September
Lannea axillaries (Naga neem) “ November to January
Betula alnoides “ November to January
Pinus sp (Pine) “ November to January
Cedrella ” November to December
Albizzia procera (Koroi) “ November to January
Anthocephalus cadamba (Kadam) “ July to September
Duabanga sonnerritoides (Khokan) “ December to March
Mechelia champaca (Alder) “ November to January
Alnus nepalensis “ November to January
The seeds should be completely dry if they are to be stored for more than a few weeks. If the seeds are not dry, they will ‘respire’ actively in their bags or basket containers and would generate enough heat to destroy the delicate embryo in each seeds.
Some seeds have hard seed cover for which it becomes difficult for water to seep into the embryo quickly. If water does not seep into the embryo, the seeds will not germinate. Therefore, seeds with such hard coats like Teak/Gamari/Ghora neem/Naga neem/ etc. may be soaked in water till signs of sprouting are detected in the seeds. Different seeds will need different periods of soaking and with little practice, the correct amount of time for proper soaking can be found out. To find out whether the seed are fertile or not, a small quantity may be thrown into burning charcoal (without flames) and fertile ones will sputter or explode which will indicate fertile seeds.
Location : It is very necessary to locate the nursery near the plantation site. The nursery should be located as far as possible in a flatland, near water source. Try to locate the Nursery on the Northern, Western aspects of a Hill slope; try to avoid Southern Aspects on hill slope because of too much sunshine and heat. The nursery beds must not be allowed to become dry after the seeds are sown. In the hotter Plain sector of Nagaland, seed can be germinated even during the winter months, in such a case the nursery beds may have to be watered. The nursery beds should be well drained, there should be no stagnancy of water.
Soil Working : The nursery site should be clear felled of all vegetation if the Nursery is a new one. The jungle clearance may be done during winter to early Spring season preferably before Weeds ripen their fruits so that weeds may be decreased in the Nursery beds, it burns of the seeds the Weeds and other undesirable plants.
It is desirable to plough or hoe the soil in the winter and allow it to weather for some time. The Nursery beds may be raised if the area is plain to ensure good drainage, in hill sides it may be a little sunken to conserve moisture though during very heavy rain there is possibility of it getting flooded if drainage is not made
Nursery bed size : The ploughed soil can be organized into beds of 1 metre wide, 15 cms high, 10 metres long, or as long as the topography would allow. The soil in the nursery should be worked into a compact, smooth, and fine textured consistency. If the nursery in flatland it should be separated by a pathway of 30 cms, so that the beds can be weeded by standing on the pathway.
Seed sowing : The seeds may be sown evenly spread over the beds, and a thin layer of fine soil is spread evenly over the seeds. This type of sowing may be done very small sized seeds of Hollock, Betula, Alder, Cedrella, Bogipoma etc. For bigger sized seeds, a small straight furrows across the length of the bed may be made in the beds with a light dibble or a wooden stick and the seeds sown in the furrows and covered up with soil.
How deep must the seeds be sown? : The Thumb Rule is to bury the seeds at the depth of the seeds’ diameter.
Moisture/Temperature of the Beds : Moisture and temperature of the soil in the Nursery beds are very important factors for germination of the seeds. To achieve this, the beds may be covered with transparent polythene sheets with it’s ends weighed down by small stones or clods of soil. This will prevent moisture loss through evaporation and increase the temperature of the nursery beds, though in practice this is easier said than done. It is more practical to expose the beds to the Suns to water the beds to maintain the correct moisture level in the nursery beds.
Time of Sowing : It is not easy to store seeds in bulk for planting in March-April, the best size of the seedling is about thumb or toe sized. To achieve this size the seeds may be sown in February-June, but most of the trees have not yet produced their seeds then and hence the seeds must collected the previous year. Thus to have optimum planting ,materials, the nursery should and must be sown one and half year before the year of plantation.
The best time of Sowing : The best time to sow the seeds is just after a shower. Normally in Nagaland, every month experiences at least one rain, and seeds sown in the nursery just after a rain in the month give very good result. It is therefore very important for a Tree Planter to have a very intimate knowledge of the weather of the locality. Some villagers say that seeds sown during the full moon is very successful.
Some species like Gomari produces ripe fruits in June-July and if immediately sown after the ripe fruits fall to the ground, they may be ready for planting in the next March-April, usually in the markedly seasonal hill areas of Nagaland, it takes more than one year to produce the planting materials.
Fertility of the nursery : For proper growth of the seedling a fertile soil is desirable, but when soil in the nursery is more fertile than the plantation site, the plants do not fare very well initially in the first year of the plantation but how successfully the plants have grown in the first year determines the success and failure of the Plantation. Therefore, raising of seedlings from normally fertile soil would be best suited in the field condition. In Nagaland, normally it is not necessary to add manure to a new nursery to ass manure to a nursery except for the nurseries which have been used for several years.
Weeding in the Nursery : Nursery cannot be weeded when the tree seedlings have not yet established their root system properly. If weeding is done, at this time the seedling would be uprooted. This is the reason why at the time of preparing nursery, the plant debris should be burnt thoroughly before original weed plants are burnt. Nursery can be weeded only when the root system of the seedlings have established properly. Leaves of the mature seedlings individuals may be plucked off to distribute sunlight to other smaller seedlings, so that all seedlings attain equal size.
Quantity of seeds in a Nursery Bed : Greater the number of seeds planted in a bed, smaller will be the size of the seedling at the time of planting. To get quality sized seedling (thumb size), the seed may be sown broadcast in the Nursery bed and then when they are few leaves old, some may be pricking out so that the remaining may be spaced at about 3-4 cms apart. The pricked out seedling may be planted in other prepare
6. Preparation on Seedling for Plantation:
In case of plantation of a limited area like in a household garden where only a few seedlings or at the most a few hundreds are required; seedlings may be prepared in polythene bags. If seedlings are to be raised in polythene bags, then one has to select the correct size materials.

The first thing to be done is to collect polythene bags from the market which are available in various sizes. The seedlings grown in polybags will have to the transplanted at the end of the year, this would mean that a very big bag is not needed; only a 10 cms diameter would be suffice for raising one-year old seedlings. If you want to prepare bigger size seedling, you may select bigger polythene bags.
During the dry season, dry soil may be prepared into fine textured consistency, this may be filled into the polybags and compacted by holding the fully filled bag and dropping it to the ground from 30 cm above the ground without letting the soil spill out. When the soil settles at a level less than the mouth of the bag, more soil may be added to make the soil almost filling the bag fully. It may be mixed with manure if the soil is not fertile. Normally, soil that has been lying fallow for several years need no chemical fertilizers. Organic manure can be used if required. Seed are sown directly into the bags during the sowing season i.e February-June
The sown polybags should be preferably kept in shade and the soil not allowed to become dry. The drawback of this method is that when germination do not take place it is detected only after a period of time, then seed has to be sown again into the polybags but the time lost cannot be recovered. To avoid this drawback, the seeds can be sown broadcast in a prepared nursery bed and watered regularly. Watering of minute seeds (Hollock, Alder, Betula, Khokon, Kadam, even Cedrellas) should be not done by splashing water with ordinary water can because the water drops are liable to splash the minute seeds preventing the seeds the time to strike root. Water should be sprayed in the beds preferably till root system of the seedlings are well developed. Beds should be moist rather than wet. If beds are kept constantly moist, it may not require sheds. The seeds are allowed to germinate and grow up to about 3 cms to 5 cms and then pricked out and planted in the polybags and grown till it is fit for plantation in the field. Normally, however, the plants are allowed to grow in the nursery beds till the planting season when they may be uprooted and root-shoot stump prepared out of them.
7.Root-shoot Stump Preparation :
The seedlings raised in the polybags are costly and difficult to transport; transporting thousands of seedlings from nursery to plantation sites several Kms away in mountainous terrain on head load is not an easy task.
Therefore, instead of seedling, planting material known as Root shoot stump is prepared. This consists of a seedling whose root has been cut off at about 15 cms and the stem cut off at about 3 cms above the ground level.
A 1(one) year old seedling is dug out or pulled out of the ground by watering the soil thoroughly. If the soil is deep and soft, the seedlings can be pulled out without injury to the seedling; but if the seedlings have deep roots and the soil hard, such pulling can injure and damage the seedlings and effect the quality of the planting material. See that the seedling is taken out without injury.
It is better to dug out the seedlings and prepare the root shoot stumps. The root-shoot stump is prepared during February-March a few days before the planting. If they are stored in cool shed, they can be kept even for weeks. If stored in wet, hot and dark place, tender shoots may grow from the stump and may get crushed at the time of handling and spoil them.
Seedlings are dug out, the stem portion beyond 3 cm (above the ground) is cut off in a slanting manner to differentiate it from the root with a sharp Dao without smashing the bark of the seedling. Similarly, the root portion beyond 15 cm is cut off. The rootlets are trimmed without injuring the main tap root.
8. Trees cannot grow without sunshine, hence the area must be clear felled of all vegetation. This operation is done during the winter. The plant materials become dry in about a month and by January the area is burned completely of the plant. This is accomplished by just one burning but by collecting the partially burned materials and repeatedly burning them. But even after removal of all green vegetation over ground, the roots and the underground portions of the plants remain alive and within a few weeks of spring rains, the whole area may be completely covered with fresh and new growths from the underground stumps of the old plants. But at the time of sowing the agri-crops, the underground rhizomes and tubers of most of the weeds and climbers are removed. This is one factor why the Trees planted in the jhum cultivation do very well. The shrub and climber are removed when the jhum cultivators do the traditional cleaning of their fields. Thus, the tree seedlings are greatly benefited by these jhum cultivation practices. Even in the second year, it is much easier to clean the area because the weed growth in the area are much decreased due to their complete removal more than once during the previous first year. Thus, it has been found that the tree growth is better in the jhum cultivation. Tree cultivation becomes costly and prohibitive for the common villagers unless it is taken up together with Jhum cultivation. Another important factor of the suitability of jhum cultivation for tree cultivation is the customary grazing practice which allows free grazing of areas not under jhum cultivation; so even if an area is planted with tree species, unless the area is also planted up with agricultural crops, none can prohibit traditional grazing in the area. If an area is planted only with the tree alone, the area has to be strongly fenced up to protect the trees from being grazed by cattle which is not an easy task in a jungle area. Therefore, tree planting along with Jhuming ensures the most effective control of grazing.
9. Spacing of Trees in Jhum Plantation
The soil of an area has a specific fertility and no area can support an indefinite number of vegetation than it’s fertility can allow. So under this specific fertility condition of soil, less the number of trees an area supports; greater is the food available to the trees resulting in faster growth of the trees. The value of tree is dependent on the size of sawn timber obtainable from the tree, and not much on it’s number. It is better to grow less number of trees in the unit areas, then to have lot of small trees.
It is more economic to grow less number of trees to obtain timber of maximum size than to produce many small size from a unit area. It is thus, important to plant only the correct number of trees per hectare. The spacing would determine the number of plants per hectare. This would vary from place to place and for other practical reasons of jhum cultivation. If the tree spacing is very close, it will also interfere with the growth of the food crop.
An important point to consider is that the denser the trees the lesser the weed growth. Weed poses a major problem to plantation in Nagaland and therefore there is tendency on the part of the tree farmers to plant a little more than the required number. Another reason for close spacing is for security against casualty, as replacement is a difficult task in Nagaland condition. Therefore, the planters decide to adopt closer spacing than the prescribed norms, but this has the danger of producing whippy trees thus greatly reducing the value of the plantations.
Plantation more than 833 trees per hectare is not advisable for timber purpose. Initially, trees have a fast height increment period and once the period is reached, them fast diameter increment period starts. If the trees are congested, diameter increment would suffer and therefore, as soon as the trees have attained their height period, they must be thinned. The size of trees of the thinned material will have a direct bearing on it’s value. Thousands will be thinned from a few hectares and if these do not fetch good price, it would be a great mismanagement of the tree plantation and the resources. If the thinned material has an average diameter of less than 10 cm., it would not fetch a good price.
Therefore, the tree should be planted at such spacing that they attain their height growth when the average tree has a diameter of about 10 cm in about 4-6 years. Thus various factors taken into considerations, the best spacing are:
5 metres x 4 metres = 500 trees per hectare
4 metres x 4 metres = 625 trees per hectare
4 metres x 3 metres = 833 trees per hectare
5 metres x 4 metres Spacing :
The plants may be planted in lines of 5 meters apart so that food crops may be raised in the inter space. In lines, the trees may be planted at every 4 metres. This will give about 5oo trees per hectare.
4 metres x 4 metres:
The plants may be planted in 4 metres apart in lines and row. This will give 625 trees per hectare.
4 metres x 3 metres
The plants are spaced at 3 metres apart in lines of 4 metres apart. This will give 833 trees per hectare.
Under Nagaland conditions of plant growth, species like Teak, Gamari, Neem, Kadam, Khokan, Sam, attains it’s normal height growth in about 3 to 4 years. As soon as they attain the normal height growth, they begin to attain their diameter growth rapidly. But if the trees are congested around 4 years of age, their diameter increment will suffer resulting in price fall. And plantation being an investment, every thing possible should be done to get maximum returns.
Those who want to grow other crops together with the tree species may adopt the 5 metres x 4 metres spacing or even 6 metres x 4 metres spacing. But if agri-crops are not grown then lower spacing may be adopted.
The first thinning of the plantation will fetch some income from the 5th year or so of the plantation. In such a plantation, a spacing of 4 metres x 3 metres or 4 metres x 4 metres may be adopted as by then, the trees may attain about 30 cm girth or 10 cm diameter. These thinned materials can be sold as Bally post.
Preparation of Plantation Sites:
The plantation sites may be prepared in the same way as one prepares for jhum cultivation. In the cool mountains where winter is a definitely marked feature, the jhum jungle clearance starts in about October but in the lower elevations, the jungle clearance can be done even in February-March. In the mountains, by February, soil preparation for paddy begins and when the site is completely cleaned and burnt of debris; it is ready for sowing of paddy, the root shoot stump should be planted along with it simultaneously. The trees should be planted in lines that may run roughly in the North South direction to get better sunshine.
10. In the line, at selected spacing point the soil may be worked by dibbling with a small dibble upto a depth more than the length of the stump. When the soil is dibbled soft and deep enough, the root shoot stump is inserted into the soil so that the tip of the stump is about 2-3 cm above the ground level to prevent the stump from getting drowned during heavy and prolonged rain. If the area is plain, the soil may be gathered into a small hump above the general level of the ground so that the planting spot will not have any stagnant water.
After the stump is planted, the soil around the stump may be pressed firmly so that there are no air spaces around the stump in the ground. The stump should be perpendicular to the horizontal level so as to prevent it from growing to a curved stem if planted at an angle. A curved stem will greatly decrease the value of the log in the future. In the slopes the stumps are planted 2-5 cm above the ground to avoid and prevent soil from above the field burying it which may results in decay and death of the stumps.
11. Species Mixture in the Plantation:
A number of species is given in the paragraph on Elevation zones, but it has not been mentioned how they should be mixed in any plantation. The species mentioned are grouped into two (two) classes in order to facilitate scientific management. All the species mentioned are not only fast growing but are also able to give good returns to the grower. Some are very fast growing, hence they are mixed a Fast growing species to a very fast growing. This is done because very fast growing species are less valuable than fast growing species but they grow big enough to be harvested around 5 to 8 years of planting when the plantation must be thinned to facilitate the quick diameter growth of the costly fast growing species. Thus, when the very fast growing species are removed, the plantation will give sufficient space to the remaining more valuable economic species. If thinning is not done when the plants are about 7 to 10 cm (3 to 4 inches) diameter and they become crowded, then the plants will become whippy and become like Bamboo with very little value as a timber.
The Fast growing species (FG) are :
Teak, Gamari, Sam, Hollock, Bogipoma, Pine, Cedrella, Betula, Tita sopa, Koroi.
The Very Fast growing (VFG) species are :
Ghora neem, Naga neem, khokon, and other being identified.

Species Mixture Plan :
Plant spacing
Ist Line 1 2 3 4 5 6
2nd Line 7 8 9 10 11 12
3rd Line 13 14 15 16 17 18
4th Line 19 20 21 22 23 24
12. Weeding:
Because of the good natural conditions for plant growth, weed growth in Nagaland is problematically very fast. On a qualitative scale, the weeds in Nagaland grows almost 52 times faster than the tree species. This is why weeding of plantation is economically not viable. Therefore, this is the reason alone in Nagaland TREE PLANTATION is ideally practicable only with JHUM CULTIVATION. At the time of weeding the paddy, the tree plants are automatically weeded without extra effort and costs.
Therefore, jhum cultivation has great potentials on Nagaland.
If tree plantation is done by all jhum cultivators; in one generation, Nagaland can become a timber producing State.. It is not possible for a few government servants of the State Forest Department with meager budget to plant enough trees for the State. Every cultivator in Nagaland can plant at least a few trees every year together with his Jhum cultivation and planting of 50 trees by each cultivator and nurturing them is not difficult as it is planted along with the jhum crops and would/does not increase his work.
Tree plantation is the only enterprise which will uplift the economy of every Naga villagers, thereby ensuring prosperity.
The Hornbill festival held in the first week of December shows that with its stunning natural beauty and great cultural traditions, Nagaland can offer a rich fare to tourists.
NAGALAND, with its diverse tribal culture, is a land of festivals. A narrow strip of mountainous territory with rugged hills, emerald valleys, sparkling streams and a rich variety of flora and fauna, the 16th State of the Indian Union has salubrious climate throughout the year. It is bounded by Assam in the west, Myanmar in the east, Arunachal Pradesh in the north and Manipur in the south. Sometimes referred to as the `Switzerland of the East', Nagaland represents unimaginable beauty, moulded perfectly for a breathtaking experience. For the adventurous, the State is an ideal place for trekking and jungle camping and offers limitless possibilities for exploring its lush sub-tropical rainforests, which are a treasure trove of medicinal plants. The 20-lakh-strong Naga people, by nature, are fun lovers, and life in Nagaland is one long festival.

A Naga girl
Each of the 16 major tribes and many sub-tribes in the State has its own way of maintaining its distinctive cultural traditions and customs, through various forms of performing arts, which are an integral part of Naga festivals. Each of the tribal communities that dwell in the hills can be distinguished by the colourful and intricately designed costumes, jewellery and beads that its members wear. The traditional ceremonial attire of each tribe is different from that of the other. There are the multi-coloured spears and daos decorated with dyed goat's hair, the headgear made of finely woven bamboo interlaced with orchid stems and adorned with boar's teeth and hornbill's feathers, and ivory armlets. In the olden days, warriors had to prove their valour if they wanted to wear these.

Nagas are admired for their rich repertory of folk dances and songs. In spite of the tremendous advance of modernity into their lives, the Naga people have a penchant for vibrant dances and songs praising the brave deeds of ancient warriors and folk heroes, love songs that immoralise tragic love stories, gospel songs and folk tunes. Festivals are celebrated by the various tribes year around; during festivals villages become most lively. Most of the dances have a robust rhythm.
Festivals mainly revolve around agriculture, it being the mainstay of the economy. Over 85 per cent of the population of Nagaland is directly dependent on agriculture and lives in the 1,000-odd villages situated on hilltops or slopes overlooking verdant valleys. In this blissful setting, Nagas enjoy nature with a rare gusto that visitors to the State look at with awe and admiration. In most of these places agriculture consists of a single crop. Although some religious and spiritual sentiments are inter-woven into secular rites and rituals, the predominant theme of the festivals is the offering of prayers to a supreme being, which has different names in different Naga dialects. At these festivals, the gods are propitiated with sacrifices by the head of the village, for a bountiful harvest, either before sowing or on the eve of the harvest. In fact, agricultural work and religion are so interwoven in Naga society that it is difficult to describe the festivals independent of the processes of agriculture.
Some of the important festivals celebrated by the tribes are Sekrenyi by the Angamis in February, Moatsu by the Aos in May, Tsukhenyie by the Chakhesangs in January, Aoling by the Konyaks in April, Mimkut by the Kukis in January, Bushu by the Kacharis in January, Tuluni by the Sumis in July, Nyaknylum by the Changs in July, Tokhu Emong by the Lothas in November and Yemshe by the Pochurys in October.
For encouraging inter-tribal cultural interaction and bringing together the festivals of the various tribes under one umbrella, the Government of Nagaland has evolved a festival called the Hornbill festival, where one can see a melange of Naga cultural displays at one place. Organised by the State Directorate of Tourism every year between December 1 and 5 in Kohima since 2000, the festival is intended to revive, protect and preserve the richness and uniqueness of the Naga heritage and attract tourists. The festival, in a way, is also a tribute to the hornbill, a bird most admired by the Naga people for its qualities of alertness and grandeur. This majestic bird is linked closely with the social and cultural life of the people, as is evident in tribal folklores, dances and songs. The awe and admiration for the bird is symbolically displayed on almost all traditional tribal headgears worn during festivities.
Hornbill National Rock Contest
The Hornbill National Rock Contest may well be the longest music festival in the country, it being a seven-day-long festival.
Such extravaganza is in keeping with the essence of the many Naga festivals; marked by feasts, dances, games and music, all in full measure. Nagas do not do things in small instalments. These celebrations invariably coincide with agricultural lean periods such as after-harvest, and therefore the feeling of gaiety and generosity, even to a fault. In the old days the rich used to host several-day-long feasts in which the villagers revelled, and guests from other villages were feted. These were times when the youth were pitted against each other in friendly competitions in performing arts and traditional sports, while the old proudly looked on.
Circumstances have changed; some have moved on while a few still embraces the old ways. Nevertheless, in either case the joie de vivre of the Nagas lives on. The annual Hornbill Festival, and therefore the Hornbill National Rock, is set in this background. In time, the event hopes to go international.

Hornbill Rock Contest 2007 winners
Hornbill Car Rally
The Hornbill Car Rally is an annual event along with the Hornbill festival. It is supported by the Government of Nagaland and organized by the Nagaland Adventure and Motor sports Association (NAMSA) where Top drivers and co-drivers from across the Country participate.
The rally promises to grow into an attractive event in the coming years with even attractive prize money for the winners. The rally is a visual delight with speedy cars zipping across beautiful landscapes and hills of Nagaland.
The Hornbill Rally is being run on the internationally acclaimed ‘Special Stage’ format, which guarantees zero opposite traffic to the participants. The fastest competitor gets zero penalties while the rest of the competitors are given penalties according to the time difference of the leader and them, in every stage. The team that logs the least penalties at the end of the two days is declared the winner. The Hornbill Rally 2007 was sponsored by the Government of Nagaland and supported by JK Tyre & Industries Limited.
Along, Hatba win Hornbill Car Rally 2007
Dimapur-based driver and co-driver Along Aier and Hatba Wangnao consolidated their first leg lead in the Hornbill Rally 2007 to emerge overall winner of the Hornbill Rally 2007 at Kohima.

“We had a brilliant run today and finished comfortably on top,” said a smiling Along at the end of the rally at Tourist Lodge here.

The winners had a minute and 44 seconds to spare as they finished the rally with a total penalty of 2:15:22. They also won the first place in the T1 (modified) category and the top spot in the Regional class. The duo received a total cash prize of Rs 2 lakh for the three top spots.

Lima Jamir and Imkong Yapang from Mokokchung continued to run third in the overall placing and won the T2 (un-modified) class coming second in the Regional class also. "We are a happy lot today after the Hornbill Rally", said a visibly elated Lima, who became richer by Rs 1, 30,000 after the victory.

The leads from the first leg almost continued to be the same, except for Prakash Momin and Daniel Sangma who climbed one position to finish 5 th overall. 12 finishers of the first leg started the second leg of the Hornbill Rally 2007 today morning at 7.30 a.m. and went on the stages.

There were two drop outs, namely Sandeep Sharma and Ashwin Naik, who pulled out with engine problems, and Toshi and Mar Aier who went off the road. Ten teams finished the Hornbill Rally 2007 at around 3 p.m.

The evening followed with a glittering prize distribution function at the Heritage Bungalow in Kohima, attended by Nagaland Chief Minister Neiphiu Rio.

The Hornbill Rally 2007 was sponsored by the Government of Nagaland and supported by JK Tyre and Industries Limited. The rally will be an annual event according to the Government of Nagaland and the organizers Nagaland Adventure and Motorsports Association (NAMSA).
"S E K R E N Y I"
(The Festival of Angami Tribe)
The Angamis celebrate SEKRENYI in the month of February. It normally falls on the 25th day of the Angami month of "KEZEI". The ten-day festival is also called PHOUSANYI by the Angamis.
The festival follows a circle of ritual and ceremony, the first being "KIZIE". A few drops of rice water taken from the top of the jug, called "ZUMHO" are put in to leaves and placed at the three main posts of the house by the lady of the household. The first day begins with all young and old going to the village well to bathe.
In the night, two young men will go to the well to clean it. Some of the village youth guard the well in the night as no one is allowed to fetch water after cleaning the well. The womenfolk, especially, are not allowed to touch the well water. Hence they have to see that water is fetched for the household before the well cleaning.Early the next morning, all the young men of the village rise to wash themselves at the well. The whole process is carried out in a ritualistic manner. The young men will don two new shawls ( the white Mhoushü and the black Lohe) and sprinkle water on their breast, knees and on their right arm. This ceremony is called "DZUSEVA" (touching the sleeping water) and it assures them that all their ills and misfortunes have been washed away by the purified well-water.
On their return from the well, a cock is sacrificed by throttling it with the bare hands. It is taken as a good omen when the right leg falls over the left leg as the cock falls down. The innards of the fowl are taken out hung outside the house for the Village elders to come and inspect it. Beginning from the fourth day of the festival, a three-day session of singing and feasting starts.
The THEKRA HIE is the best part of the festival where the young people of the village sit together and sing traditional songs throughout the day. Jugs of rice-beer and plates of meat are placed before the participants. On the seventh day the young men go for hunting. The most important ceremony falls on the eighth day when the bridge-pulling or gate-pulling is performed or inter-village visits are exchanged. Until the close of the festival no one goes to the fields and all field work ceases during this season of feasting and song.
The young unmarried girls with closely shaven heads sit down with the bronzed youth sing tunes bygone ages, recreating a past where no care touched the human soul.
(The Festival of Ao Tribe)
The Aos observe Moatsü Mong after the sowing is done and the mother earth begins to show the sign of fertility. It provides the Aos the period of recreation after the strenuous job which goes into clearing fields, burning jungles and sowing seeds, cleaning up the Tsübu (Wells) and repairs and construction of houses by elders of the Putu Menden stretching over a week. The festivals marked by vigorous songs and dances, merrymaking and fun, is now observed only for three days from 1 to 3 May.
The natural customary practice of the forefathers was competing in making the best rice-bear and rearing the best possible pigs and cow to be slaughtered during the festival.
The womenfolk would weave the best of traditional garments and adorn themselves with all their fineries. They would join the men folk in dancing eating and drinking and composing warrior songs.Singing songs in praise of the lovers and the village as a whole was done and the older men folk would encourage the young people to be bold and heroic to defend and protect them from enemies as head-hunting was practiced during the forefathers time.
During this festival one of the symbolic celebrations is SANGPANGTU where a big fire is lid and women and men sit around it. The best women serve the best wine and meat and make merry. Forecast is made by the righteous men who live by the guidance of the Almighty to see whether good or evil days are awaiting the people.
Aos has another festival called Tsüngrem Mong. It is celebrated in the eve of the harvest. However, now a days the Aos celebrate this festival from 1 to 3 August.
Prior to the start of the festival the Village will declare the Süngküm (Village Gate) closed and free entry or exit is restricted and regulated for people who do not belong to that particular village.
Parties of old and young wearing their colourful costumes sing songs and perform dances to express their gratitude to the supreme Power fro helping the crops to grow well. They provide the best offerings to the supreme Power for abundant blessings
These festivals provide opportunities to the budding generations and village stalwart to demonstrate their intellectual skill and physical powers.
A handful of young men hold the stage and tell amusing stories about their elders. Peals of laughter greet them and young and old jump in excitement.
These festivals are usually rounded off by a tug of war between men and women. Stories are galore that men lose to please their womenfolk. But none has refuted the argument that attracted by charm of their opponents, absorbed by their sweet songs and regaled by their very presence men lose gracefully.
The only defense offered is that men have to pull uphill and the women downhill. Whatever the spirit behind this sport it is a treat to see and an honour to participate.
(The Festivals of Chakhesang Tribe)
The Chakhesang community celebrates seven festivals in a year as shown below;
1. SÜHKRÜHNYE -15 January
2. NGUNYE -1 February
3. TSAKRONYE -1st Sunday of March
5. KHUTHONYE -15 July
SÜHKRÜHNYE is the most important festival and is celebrated on 15th January. During this festival the boys and girls are sanctified through religious ceremonies and rituals.
As a matter of fact, SÜHKRÜHNYE covers eleven days starting from ‘NYEDE’ and within five days including ‘NYEDE’ necessary preparations are made for the rest of six days of festivity period.
The first days of the festivity period is known as ‘CEDÜ’. On this very day animals are killed and every household sprinkles the blood of the killed animals on the main post of the house. The first fetched out SÜHKRÜHNYE wine is offered to the deities of banana leaf tumblers and the cooked meat and rice-bear are offered to the High-Priest and Priests of the village in expectation of blessings.
The second day is ‘SÜHKRÜH’ mean for men folk. ‘SÜHKRÜH’ signifies sanctification of young, innocent and unspoiled boys for this ritualistic ceremony. On this day every man is supposed to take a fresh water bath and are forbidden to use water fetched by women. To perform this ritualistic ceremony (SÜHKRÜH) everything is new including utensils and fireplace. The men folk go to the well early in the morning before any animals and bird touches or partakes of the water and take a fresh water bath immediately after the first crow of the cock which indicates the breaking of the new day, in order to sanctify themselves. Thereafter, the unpolluted water, considered to be holy, is brought home, fire is made out of the fire making method and unblemished cock is killed and cooked with the holy water and eat it to sanctify the boy/boys for the rest of their lives. Even when a new house is constructed ‘SÜHKRÜH’ is performed in order to get his house sanctified. This whole process is called ‘SÜHKRÜH’ and ‘NYE’ is known as festival.
On this day the entire men folk go for community bird-trapping. The collected birds are hung on a decorated tip of a tall bamboo as a symbol of SÜHKRÜHNYE. Different kinds of birds so caught are believed to foretell the fortunes for the forthcoming days of the year of the concerned individual.
The third day is called ‘THÜNO NUSO’ which is mean for women only. The mother perform this ceremonial ritual to sanctify her young innocent daughter/daughters. ‘THÜNO NUSO’ is much simpler than that of ‘SÜHKRÜH’ They prepare unblemished young hen and eat to sanctify themselves for their entire lives.
The forth days is known as ‘MÜTHI CELHÜ’ where social feasts such as MÜLELHÜ or feast of social age groups, ZHOTHO MUZA (Feast of merit), etc. begins. This day is set aside from religious restrictions.
The fifth days is known as ‘CEDÜ ZHONGU’ which means accomplishment of the festivals. The sixth and the last day is known as ‘THÜNYE MÜKRA’. Now that the festival’s religious pursuits are relaxed, to make the last of ‘SÜHKRÜHNYE’ they continue feasting, dancing and singing throughout the day and night till dawn.
With the coming of the Christianity, ‘SÜHKRÜHNYE’s religious and traditional ceremonies and rituals are no longer in practice in most of the villages. However, ‘SÜHKRÜHNYE’ is still celebrated with great significance and enthusiasms mostly by the Chokris in Phek district. During this traditional festival the indigenous games, folk songs, folk dance and sports fully occupy the festive period of sixth days starting from 15th January in keeping with Christian spirit.
SÜHKRÜHNYE being a festival of sanctification, it is also marked as Christian’s Day. Water baptism can take place on this occasion. SÜHKRÜHNYE is a time of joyful celebration and so people do anticipate and yearn for the next to come.
The TSÜKHENYIE festival is also an important festival for the Chakhesang. Earlier it was usually celebrated at the end of the 3rd lunar month of March, but now it is being observed on 6th May.
A new year of activities begins with the arrival of Spring. All sports and games and other youth activities which began after the harvest will cease with the closing of this festival.
The festival lasts for four days. On the first morning, the village Priest will offer sacrifice with the first cock that crowed that morning. Also, early that morning, all male folks (any male person who can use a spear) come to a designated well (where only male folks are allowed) and purify themselves by bathing. This purification is important. Any acts not conforming to the set rites and ceremonies will be frowned at and will bring bad luck to the person or the family. In this bathing ceremony, they use only new gourd dipper (for hauling water) specially set aside for this day, and also put on new dresses. After the bath is performed they invoke the Almighty for strength, long life, good harvest, and other blessings.
During this festival only the best (unblemished) of the male domestic animals will be slaughtered for consumption. No female livestock will be slaughtered. New wine will be prepared and used. The meat and other food prepared will be shared with the best friends (khwukhe or hachhi). Games and sports, music competition is organized among the different age groups after which feast is also organized among those different age groups.
During this festival, the married women go to the their parents house and prepare the best food for their husbands. In some villages, the male youths will declare the most beautiful girl of the village for the year.
At the end of the festival, all the traditional games and music articles will be stored away (kehale-mekhi) and not used till the necessary rites are performed for their use in the next after-harvest festival. Even the plates, which are used for presenting food to the spirits of the dead, will be thrown till the next opening of such performances after the harvest (kehale-methsü). All leisure activities will be forbidden after this festival.
As the festival ends with the invocation of new blessings, all leisure activities will be left behind and from then on will concentrate only in the activities of the fields and other related activities. With it the sowing of paddy and planting of new seeds start.
Tsükhenyie is a festival, which celebrates the culmination of all leisure activities, and a festival for welcoming a new fruitful life and year.
The Festivals of Chang Tribe

According to the oral traditional story of the Chang it is said that they have emerged from a place known as "Changsangmongko" and settle at a place called ‘CHANGSANG’ This was the first named village for Changs. There at the centre of the village they construct a platform called "MULLANGSHON". It is a platform of progress and prosperity, which became the public court for deliberating all the major issues & cases heard and judgement delivered.Social issues like village administration, cultivation, festivals, worships, marriage systems, boundaries of the land, war and peace making were also taken up in this platform. Decision delivered and judgements passed from this Mullang Shon become the final order.
The Changs usually observe six major festivals in a year. Out of which the three festivals namely (1) Poang Lem (2) Jeinyu Lem (3) Kundang Lem were monitored by Haongang Clan. The remaining three festivals (1) Muong Lem (2) Naknyu Lem (3) Monyu Lem, were monitored by Ung Clan. In this way the tradition was maintenance for generation and is followed till date.
The counting of the days and the fixation of the festivals were made in the following manners :
At the time of counting the days for fixation of festival a chicken offering is made for appeasing the God. Each Clan while performing such, a ritual has to observe much sanctity. All festivals were fixed six days ahead except the KUNDANG LEM and NAKNYU LEM. The Kungdang Lem was treated as the youngest and fixed five days ahead. Whereas the Naknyu Lem was treated with much awe, so was fixed just before two days ahead. It should start on the dark-moon-day as the main festival day.
Kungdang Lem is observed in the eight month (April) of Chang Calendar. This festival is observed for five days only. During the first three days, materials for construction of field huts in Jhum cultivated areas are collected and the area is tested on the fourth day. On the fifth days the relatives collectively go to the fields for construction of the huts. Thereafter, in the evening, feasting take place at home after they return from the fields. The sixth day is also kept for feasting. The seventh day is observed as “AOLAAK JAANBU” – planting or raising a kind of tree which bear bunches of sour fruits.
It was believed that in ancient days, during the forefather’s time, the entire world was enveloped with total darkness, day and night could not be differentiated. The darkness was so thick that people could not even go out for collection of firewood and water. They remained inside their home for complete six days and by then they become short of everything. In order to keep the fire burning inside homes they burned out every available things and when nothing was left they are compelled to burn even the horns of buffaloes, mithuns and cows that were hang in front of the houses.
On the seventh day the light came as usual. The people of the earth became extremely happy and by way of giving thanks to the God this Naknyu lem was held. In this Naknyu lem no worship is performed but certain rules are strictly observed.
This festival is held on the eleventh month of Chang calendar which falls during July. The counting of the days and the announcing of the day is made by the Ungshedbou of Ung Clan. It should be a sudden announcement leaving two days gap only. It starts on the last day of the moon, i.e. flour grinding day. Domestic animals are slaughtered, young and old play spinning tops while music and laughter pervades from the women folks as they play the kongkhin (in Chang) made out of bamboo split. Village streets are swept and cleaned so do houses and their surroundings. Firewood and water are stocked.
The second day, which is the dark-moon-day is called ‘Youjem’. On this day no one go out of the village, even for drawing water . There are exchanges of gifts and food items among the friends and relatives. Meat, wine and freshly packed breads are plentifully used. Sports like Top spinning, tug of war, high jump, long jump, climbing of oiled pole and jumping and grapping big lumps of well cooked meat hang in row along bamboo rope. Women play on kongkhin. They too compete with this instrument. Men and women, young and old, all engage themselves in feasting and merrymaking the whole day but no dancing.
On this occasion the footpath and all the houses are decorated by placing leaves; a kind of herbal shrub called ‘NGOUNAAM’ (Eiziholfziablanda) which is a must to plant at every front of the house forward off evil spirits. The people, especially the children, put the leaves in their ear lobes so that no evil spirit will harm them.
In the evening, at the time of sunset, everybody remained inside the house. No man walks and rooms outside. During this hour, in the front and back door of every house a seed called ‘Vui long’ (Tape seeds) are buried inside paddy husks and burnt. Every member of the family remained still to hear the bursting sound of the seed. The tape seed explodes and if the sound and the exploding fragments bounds back towards the house . It is a bad omen and if the sound is good and the fragments bounds off it means good fortune. At this hour, ‘Shambuli Muhgha’, a God from heaven descends and visits every house and any one found outside is harmed. The third day is the day is the day of cleaning the village surroundings and approach roads. Aftyer the celebration of this festival other activities like cleaning of paths leading to the fields and neighboring villages starts . A daughter born in this month is named as Monyu.
Besides, the Chang celebrated (1) Poang Lem (2) Jeinyu Lem (3) Muong Lem and (4 Monyu Lem
"B U S H U"
(The festival of Kachari Tribe)
The Kacharis celebrate a number of festivals in a year. Among them the most important ones Bushu of Buhsu Jiba which is widely celebrated by the Dimasa Kacharis and (b) Baisagn-the spring festival of the Mech (Boro) Kacharis.
The Bushu is basically a post harvest festival and usually falls in the month of January every year after all the hard earned grains of paddy are harvested, thrashed and stored in the granaries. Although the exact date and place of the festival is not generally fixed, people see to it that it is celebrated when
there is moonlight in the nights because it is believed to be auspicious.
Recently, the people have decided to celebrated the festival in the last week of January. The other festival Baisagn is celebrated in the second week of April coinciding with the New Year Day of the Hindu calendar. The mode of celebration of these two festivals being basically similar, the soul of these festivals is feasting and merrymaking with socio-cultural activities.
Bushu is celebrated either village-wise or sometimes a number of villages in contiguous area together organise the festival. This promotes better unity and understanding among the people of all ages and social status. The food items of the festival include rice, mutton, chicken, pork, buffalo meat and rice beer. The killing of these animals is known as ‘Meesthaiba’ which involves ritualistic performance before the animals are actually killed. Thereafter the village Priest prays on behalf of the people and places an offering of cooked rice and meat in the name of ‘Sibarai’ the Creator. This offering is known as ‘Meedo-Karba’. This is followed by feasting and merrymaking through songs and dances in which people of all ages and sex participate. Traditional sports called ‘Rimin-nehlaiba’ (consists of two opponents trying to push each other holding a wooden bar by hands below the armpit and ‘Longthai-suguba’ (lifting of heavy stones ) etc. are played. Also competitions on cultural dances, folk songs, folktales etc. are held during the festival. The dancing group also performs in honor of the village chief or any invited quest which is known as ‘Bai-sengna’. The honored quest offers some ‘present’ to the group as a gesture of acknowledgement of the honor.
Bushu is of three types :
1. Hangsho-which lasts for 7 days and 7 nights.
2. Surem – lasts for 3 days and 3 nights.
3. Jidep Jiba – lasts for 1 day and 1 night.
Among these the last one is generally observed in every village.
The origin of this festival dates back to the days of yore. From time immemorial each Dimasa village had a youth dormitory called ‘Nohdrung’. All the male adults, particularly the youth lived in the dormitory and quard the village from theft, enemy raids etc. Besides. This served as the learning centre of handicraft, music, dance and other forms art. It was from this rural institution that gave rise to the idea of holding an annual feast after the paddy grains are harvested and stored. In the later years all the villages began to give religious importance to the feast and thus became an important festival of the people . Till today this festival is celebrate with pomp and grandeur by the Dimasa Kacharis.
(The Festival of Khiamniungan Tribe)
This festival held in the first week of May every year. One of the main significance of this festival is to build cordial relations and to make close-knit relation between the maternal uncle and his sisters offspring i.e. (Nephews and Niece). It is during this festival that the maternal uncle offers a very special prayer by invoking the supernatural Deity to grant good health, prosperous life and power over enemy to his Nephews and Niece.
On this occasion Niece and Nephews visit their Maternal Uncle with presents like Clothes, Dao’s and other things besides edible items like – Fermented Breweries, sticky rice and cooked or uncooked meat. This is also a very special occasion of FORGIVE and FORGET between Maternal Uncle and his Niece or Nephews. But if the differences or disputes is beyond pardonable on the part of Maternal Uncle, he will not allow his Niece and Nephews to visit his house for getting blessing. In the event of such happenings it is believed that the future life of his Niece and Nephews lay in shambles. But refusing to give blessing is a very rare case.
The significance of this festival is also to mark the seedling in the new field in which all the families of the village go to their Khetis and perform Pujas and prayer by offering animal blood and flesh with other food stuffs to their Deity. The people also pray to bless them with strong, handsome and beautiful children. They too pray for increase of animals and grains in the field and ask for prevention of crops from damage and visitation of plague over human and animals.
This festival is also known as dividing line between merrymaking season and the start of working season. From this festival onwards people stops performing folk songs and dances till the next joyous festival called TSOKÜM’ comes. The elders of the Tribe and also the villages stops to enter any treaty or hold any diplomatic welfare ties with any Tribe and villages.
This festival is held during the first week of October. This is mainly observed to give thanks to the Almighty Deity for giving good crops and safeguarding life in the family. During this festival animals like Mithun, Buffaloes, Cows, Pigs etc, are killed and sacrificed to appease their God. A portion of neck and limps of the animals killed is then collected in the ‘Morung’ in the form of compulsory donation. The next day all the male folks of the village go to make or repair the roads and bridges between the villages and also the roads leading to their Khetis. On their return home from work, they partake of the food and breweries half way which has been kept arranged by the villagers out of the meat donated by those who killed animals during the festival.
One of the main significance of this festival is to grant permission the right to harvest and test the new crops . It is also during this time that each warriors of the village is in a liberty to display his hunted trophies by marking on the sharpened wood so that the people will come to know how many man one has killed during his life time.

(The Festival of Konyak Tribe)
The entire Konyak Community of Nagaland, observed Aoleong Monyu in the first week of Aoleong Lee (April) every year since time immemorial. Aoleang is observed after completion of sowing of seeds in the new fields and to marks the end of the old year and to welcome the new year beginning with spring when a riot of flowers in every hue start to bloom. It is time to ask Almighty God for beautiful harvest of crops in that very year. The Aoleang Monyu is spread over six days. Each day has separate names and different significance : (1) Hoi Lai Yah Nyih (2) Yin Mok Pho Nyih, (3) Yin Mok Shek Nyih (4) Lingnyu Nyih (5) Lingha Nyih and (6) Lingshan Nyih.
1. The first day is called "HOI LAI YAH NYIH" which means the preparation day of the Aoleong Monyu. On this day every arrangement is made for the Aoleaong, like collection of firewood, banana leaves, vegetables etc. The rice beer is also stored on this day. New clothes are woven and all necessary ornament are prepared. On this day, the head of the family goes to the jhum field and sacrifices a chicken and sprinkles its hot blood on the "WUMJONG" altar with an invocation to the supreme Power for helping to grow crops well. By taking out the intestine, he predicts the future of his family. A leg of chicken with food is given to the neighbour of the new jhum field of that year. The food is carefully put into leaves and brought home and given to the family members after the prayers and ceremony. On that day also, a stage called "Aoleang WAKAM" is constructed in every "PANS" Morungs for the dancing parties.
2. The second day is called "YIM MOK PHO NYIH" The domestic animals like Buffaloes, Mithuns, Cows and Pigs etc. have to be searched and roped in and tethered to a past to be killed during the Aoleang. In addition to that young boys those who have not yet joined in head hunting were taken to the jungles for proxy head hunting . On their return from the jungles, the next day, young boys and girls have to be tabooed on that day.
3. The third day is called "YIM MOK SHEK NYIH" which means the day for killing of animals. On this day, the green signal for the start of the festival is given by hosting of well decorated Bamboo Flag "KOIPHONG" Right after the hosting the young men start playing the logdrum and go to their own houses to kill the animals. All the men gathered at the Morung will have best chosen food and rice beer before they go to their houses. The youngsters in the age group between 15 to 20 years together kill some domestic animals and take the meat to their parents after they enjoy the day.
4. The fourth day is called "LINGNYU NYIH" which means the great day amongst the six days of Aoleang Monyu. On this day, men and women wear beautiful ornaments and spend the whole day in community feasts, amusements, dances and merry making. Every house prepares the best feast and shares it with friends, relatives and neighbours. In the afternoon, all the men go to the main entrance gate of the village and have a feast there and teach the young men the art of head-hunting. On their return from the place called "PEJONG" which means entrance of the village, the men group themselves according to different Morungs and start dancing. Led by their leaders, they visit each other’s Morung and express each other’s good and bad qualities through songs.
The normal themes of the songs are the victory over the enemy, asking Almighty God for bountiful crops etc. The dance party holds enemy’s heads in their hands and display in front of others Morung their victory over their enemies. In the evening, all the groups gather at a place called "SHAOCHONG" where the heads, legs and hands of enemy are kept. All the groups dance together and fire the guns. The old and young men who can shoot the gun go to their own houses with loaded gun and fire in front of their houses to signify the "LINGNYU NYIH".
5. The fifth day is called "LINGHA NYIH". This day is observed by honoring each other ; the old men are honoured by the young ; young boys and their parents call on their married sisters and daughter’s respectively and after them best feasts ; married daughters also visit their parents and offer them the best feasts; married daughters also visit and offer grand feasts to their parents. On this day families of the dead visit the burial sites of their dead relatives and pay their last homage to the departed souls. A special feast is arranged on this day to renew the friendship made by parents and to make the friendship last for posterity amongst the descendants. They also visit permanently declared household friends and exchange best prepared food items. permanently declared households friends and exchange well-prepared food items. Permanently declared household friendship continues for years together best portion of meat are exchanged between these households.
6. The sixth day is called "LINGSHAN NYIH" which means final day of the Aoleang Monyu. The day is spent in cleaning the village and houses which were made dirty during the Aoleang Days.
(The Festival of Kuki Tribe)
Minkuut is the harvest festival of the Kukis. Kukis of Nagaland celebrate this festival on 17th Kuki month of Tolbol (January) every year. The celebration lasts one week. Besides Mimkuut, Kukis celebrate Chapphou Kuut Chavang Kuut as well as other smaller festivals.
It is believed that Mimkuut and other festivals, came into being from the fact that in order to appease Thilha (Demon) the people sacrifice and at the same time they also believed in the existence of a Supreme God whom they call "Chung Pathen" (Heavenly God). To get the blessings of such gods the village Medicine man (Thempu) would sacrifice fowls to propitiate the spirit of the Demon-god by performing a series of rituals and prayer.
Tradition handed down orally from generation to generation says that the Kukis originated from subterranean underworld. They came out from this underworld in search of better land. They brought with them a number of cereals such as millet, tapioca, beans, yam etc. After they came over ground they found paddy and job’s tear together, which were brought across a river called Twinanhem by a pair of wild rat on a bamboo seath (Stipule) tucked to their mouths. Gradually they found Mithun from a place called Sisep, Pig from Bonnol, Fowl from Molkon which they domesticated. They would lavishly use these animals during such festivals. Thus the cultivation of this job’s tear started. They found that, it was more productive and yielded a better harvest.
The celebration of the completion of the year’s harvest is done with the instructions and guidance of the village Medicine man (Thempu). On that day for the entire village the Medicine man would chant incantations to the God for the rich harvest and to invoke the spirit for more abundance harvest in the coming years. The Mimkuut is essentially a wrap up of the year long toils of the land. The celebration is marked by feasting, drinking of Madhu (rice-beer), the youths engaged themselves in various types of merrymaking, fetching of water and firewood, traditional sports like wrestling and other games and different kinds of tamashas continue throughout day and night. The older people sit by the fire-side singing traditional songs and more enthusiastic ones dance and crack jokes from time to time.
A simple translation of one of the songs sung during the celebration of Mimkuut is as follows :
"Job’s tear is harvested and gathered.
Time to wrap up the year’s toil and relax;
Countless birds encircle the job’s tear field.
Suddenly one Kite swoop down and away it carries off one;
Before a stone could be pelted at."
Sequence of Seven Days Mimkuut Celebrations :
The First Day of Mimkuut is exclusive for the Village Priest-Shaman. He would perform series of rituals asking the god Thilha (demon) the good or bad of the time for celebration. Accordingly, he would announce the date and manner of celebration. The announcement is done early in the morning at cock-crow with the accompaniment of the sound of Gong and Drum. Everyone then start preparation mentally and physically.
On the Second Day early in the morning, the Village Shaman would perform rites and rituals at Village Water Point and other ominous places like biggest tree, and biggest rock near the Village believed to be the abode of god Thilha (demon) by sacrificing blemished white fowl.
The Third Day is devoted to cleaning of the village, footpath to Water point, Kheti and neighbouring Villages. The womenfolk prepare food, ju and other drinks. They would serve them to the menfolk who are working.
On the Fourth Day able-bodied man from each household and youth from Phan (Dormitory) would go to the jungle to rope Mithun. The Mithun is brought to the Village and tied with a post having three branches. No ordinary tree or post is used. On this day the womenfolk and youngsters bring millet, yam, pumpkin, job’s tear and other kheti products. They prepare country baked cake and cook yam, pumpkin, Tapioca etc. These will be served to the men folk on arrival with the Mithun. The boys and girls fetch firewood, water, leaves required for the feast.
On the Fifth Day the Mithun is ceremoniously killed after observing rites by the Shaman. The menfolk cut and prepare the Mithun. The womenfolk continuously serve Madhu and other drinks. The boys and girls wearing the best of clothes and other garments sing and dance throughout the day. The whole day is devoted to merrymaking, jest, singing and dancing. New songs are taught and learn. The whole evening is spent in feasting and revelry. The main Kuut Feast is enjoyed together by one and all.
The Sixth Day is devoted to sports. Different age groups are formed and competition goes on through out the day. The elder group, the younger group and the women group would vie for the coveted prize which is normally a lump of Mithun meat set aside for it. The sports competed are mostly shot-put, race, pole climbing, wrestling, mithun jump, pole throw (pole use for pounding rice) etc. Other traditional games are also played. The women section also compete various types of sports, whereas the aged and children would enjoy watching. The night is a get-together night. A big camp-fire is lit and folk song, folk dance punctuated by jokes continue throughout the night.
The Seventh Day – the last day is the coming together of mainly family members and neighbours. Married daughters with husband and children would visit their parents, brothers and sisters and exchange gift. They will be reciprocated and sent back after being entertained.
The Shaman would announce closing of the celebration after performing rites and rituals in the same manner by again releasing spotless white fowl to please Thilha god (demon) and with good omen for the village (prosperity and health), he would announce the closure of the celebration officially.
The Village will then begin the year’s activity.
(The Festival of Lotha Tribe)
The Tokhü Emong is the harvest festival of the Lothas. With the harvest done and the granaries full, the people now take a respite from the toils and sweat and settle down to enjoy the fruits of one’s hard labour.
Tokhü Emong is celebrated in the 1st month of November every year and it stretches over to 9 days. Earlier, no particular date was fixed. However, in order to carve unity and uniformity among the ranges, Wokha elders decided to celebrate it on a fixed date. Following this Tokhü Emong is celebrated on November 7, every year.
During this festival, the entire Village takes part in the celebration. Every household have food and drinks prepared for the feast. Friends, families neighbors are invited to each other’s house and this continues for 9 days. The main features of the feast are community songs, dances, feast, fun and frolic. Everyone attires themselves in their beautiful traditional dresses and costumes according to their social status. There is an air of gaiety and light heartedness everywhere. Gifts of food and drinks are exchanged during the Festival. Among friends, the number of cooked meat given denotes the depth of friendship and ties. For example, if one man offers 12 pieces of meat to his friend, it shows that he treasures his friendship, it is reciprocated, and he is also offered 12 pieces of meat, it means that the friendship is valued from both sides.

In this case, should any disaster or misfortunes strikes either one of them, both of them will stand by each other no matter what. Thus a friendship of loyalty and fidelity was pledged. In case of mere acquaintances or platonic ones, only 6 pieces of meat are exchanged.
It is the Priest who gives the signal for the start of the festival. He accompanied by aids (Yinga) along with baskets goes round the village collecting un husked rice from every home when offering is made. The priest takes a handful of it, showers prayers and it is only after this that he puts the contribution in his basket. The belief was that the more generous the contribution, the more yield one would get during harvest but if any one refuses to contribute, he would lead a pauper’s life. So none would dare to refuse contribution for fear of that. A portion of the collection is used to buy a pig and the rest is used for making rice-beer. The pig is killed and cut and is distributed to the contributors. The ritual is considered as contributing factor to general prosperity.
Before the commencement of the festival, if any stranger happens to be in the village, he gets two options; to leave the village (past beyond the village gate) before sunset or to stay there in the village until the festival is over. He however, enjoys the warm hospitality of the villagers. This festival also provide the occasion to offer prayers for the departed souls. The family who lost any member during the year performs his/her last rites. The people remain in the village till the last rites are performed.
Young boys and girls engaged during the year are happily married after Tokhü. It is also the time for renovating the village gate, cleaning wells and repairing houses.
Tokhü -Emong is also a festival of thanks giving, sharing and reconciliation but the most beautiful aspect of this festival is that past rancours are forgiven, new ties are formed and bonds of closer intimacy are formed.
Wild cries of Joy-echo over the green hills and narrow valleys. One feels as if the stones have been given tongue to say ‘Oh farmers, tender your fields with love and care’.
(The Festival of Pochury Tribe)
October is the month of festivity which every Pochury anxiously awaits, every year to celebrate their greatest festival Yemshe. Yemshe is the festival of welcoming the new harvest and blessing. All the Pouchuries, young and old, rich and poor celebrate this festival with great pomp and gaiety anticipating a good harvest which they deserve after a year’s hard labour under scorching sun and merciless rain. No one is allowed to harvest etc. until the whole period of festival is over.
Originally, the festival commence from the last part of September with different categories of observances till the final day which falls in the first week of October every year. Yemshe is observed only on the 5th October keeping in tune with the final days of the traditional observance of the festival.
When the time approaches, the Village Spokesman will announce the arrival of Yemshe. The very next day of the festivities will begin with the observance of the first part of rituals.
There will be preparations. The Youth of the Village will clean whole village, footpaths, wells and fields and construct Baskets making-cum-Resting Places. After that the head of the family will perform all rituals. Necessary materials used in rituals are fastened to the main post of the front house. Engaged couples (fiance & fiancee) will renew their relationship with exchange of food or wine and eat together. Many young couples come to know each other and get themselves engage during this period. As such, this festival is important and enjoyable moment particularly to young people and farmers in general. This is known as the Big Yemshe.
The small Yemshe, like big Yemshe, is also celebrated with rituals. The sanctification of the House, a ritual feast has to be hosted by a rich family. All the villagers will observe the period with great solemnity till the end of the period.
The family who host the Sanctification Feast has to fulfill the following conditions before the feast day.
1. The family who host the Sanctification Feast will have to provide wine to all families of the village.
2. The family will have to host dance party of his (head of the family) age-group, men and women in the village and in Khel wise as well. Feast will be given to the dancers, and meat will be distributed to all his age-group friends.
3. Cutting of Bamboo Mugs will be held twice. All the host’s clansmen/nephews will make new b bamboo mugs. They will take wine from these mugs which will be kept with the host. Also all the old Mugs will be collected from every house and kept in the host’s family for drinking wine.
4. Only paddy rice will be arranged (not millet, maize etc.) and distribute it to all the houses by the host and later the cooked rice will be again collected and redistributed to all the families in the village.
5. All the clansmen will take one Mithun and a Chicken to a river on the way to the Jhum field and feast. They will construct a Resting Shed there for the host of the Sanctification Feast. It is believed that in the second life, those who have not hosted the Sanctification Feast can not sigh with a deep breath as ‘ewhi’, but can only say ‘Korowhi’ and those who have not performed the Resting Shed Feast they can only say ‘owhi’.
6. For reserving of frogs, one axe each for three rivers is given to the villagers as frogs in these three rivers are reserved. This will be followed by giving out a big feast to all the village elders. After that it will be announced in the village that frogs are reserved by the host of Sanctification or Yemshe Festival and no other should go to these rivers to catch it.
7. After wine and food is arranged, the master of the festival will ask his villagers to fetch him pine-wood and he will give a big feast to his villagers. Men will take 6 pieces of meat while women will take only 5 pieces.
8. All the clansmen will carry well-prepared food and wine and go to the reserved rivers and make bridges/ladders for frogs catchers to enable them to go to any part of the river. At the same time, they shall eat and drink and enjoy themselves. This is a part of many games they play.
9. A chicken will be kept in a cage on a selected tree on the way to the field. After that a selected group will go to that spot with dried frogs where chickens was kept and have a feast there. Every household have to perform this. Even the poorest family have to perform this ritual by roasting brinjal as the substitute of frogs and chicken.
10. It is traditionally believed that the most fertile lands were under the control of devils. Sacrificial acts also therefore have to be performed according to the fertility of the land. For the most fertile land a Mithun has to be sacrificed, then a pig and the less fertile land a chicken has to be sacrificed in the field. Two big gourds of wine will be carried, one for halfway and the other for sacrificial consumption. While coming back from their fields a particular group will not mix up with another group. So, a Mithun group, Pig group and Chicken group shall come back home separately. Likewise, wine also will be taken separately.
After all the arrangements like collection of green vegetables, meat etc. and performances of rituals are completed, the master will select 6 supervisors; two for washing ginger, four to supervise the butchers for preparation of the feast for the whole village. All young and old will come and help the host in preparation of the feast. In this feast, Mithun, Pigs and Chicken will be slaughtered. If there is no Mithun three pigs will substitute a Mithun. Womenfolk will pound rice and cook while the menfolk will be busy for meat, and other difficult jobs. By sundown, all villagers, from youngest to the oldest will come together to attend the great feast.
Few quantities of all sorts of food stuff and rice grains etc. shall be shared and offered it to the dead souls as farewell gifts and greetings of the Yemshe Feast.
The last day of the feast will be impressively observed as the feast cleansing day. All will remain at home and no one will do anything and go on journey or anywhere. From the very next day all types of harvest and collection of house constructional materials etc. will begin as the happiest moment for the farmers has come with the blessing of God.
The Festivals of Phom Tribe
The Phoms have four major festivals each having unique significance. They are MONYU, MOHA, BONGVUM and PAANGMO.
Monyu, the most popular and biggest festival falls in the month of April every year soon after the sowing season. The festival is celebrated for six days beginning from 1st to 6th April every year. It also marks the end of winter and the beginning of summer or monsoon. A day or two prior to the festival the green signals of the dawn of festival is made by beating log drums with a distinct tune synchronise purposely for the event, traditionally named "LAN NYANGSHEM".
The Priests or the village elders performed a ritual and predicts what the forthcoming festival would be, a blessing or a curse. In case the prediction shows a sign of dangers, the villagers are warned to be careful during the festivity. Monyu is the time to bid farewell to the on going year and heralds the dawn of the new year. It is also the time of prayers and dedication for the sprouting crops that are already sowed. The main feature of the Monyu is the occasion when the male members of the family shows love and renewal of affectionate feelings towards their married daughters or sisters by presenting them the purest of the rice beer and specially prepared food. Such conduct reflects the general status of the Phom women that "they are respected and honoured". Planning and decision relating to community welfare to be implemented throughout the years are also decided during the festival.
The six days long festival follows a circle of ritual and activities which may be categorised day-wise as the following.
The first day is the day for over all preparation. Besides preparing of domestic chores every household go to collect wrapping leaves and bamboo’s, which is called "SHONGTEN-LAIPHEN’.
The second day is for compulsory brewing of all kinds of rice beer.
The third day is meant for the varying age-group from oldest down to the youngest. They gather together and feast amidst dancing, merry making etc. Thus the day is named "Aiha Okshok".
The fourth day is coined as "Chingi Okshok" which practically means general festivity and also the day of arrival of guests from neighbouring villages.
On the fifth day parties of young and old men and women wear their respective colourful costumes, keep themselves busy, eating, drinking, dancing, inviting friends, kit and kin… making each moment of the day memorable and joyous, which is called "paangmohah".
The sixth day and the last day is another remarkable day. The elderly people feast by exchanging a jug of purest rice beer and meat etc. The younger ones both boys and girls stroll out of the outskirts of the village and feast together. The most common game played during the last day of the festival is "Swing" made out of wild rope locally called "SHAKOK VU". It is to be noted that the whole process is carried in a ritualistic manner.
Moha is the one day festival in the month of May to pray for the better growing of seeds/plants. The new crop plants of various kind are taken to village by the elders or the Priests of the village and put in a ritual place or an alter called "Moidu" invoking blessing by Priests called "Ngongpathu" for the better growth of the seeds.
The Bongvum festival generally falls in the month of October every year after the major harvest and is observed only for a day. This festival may be best interpreted as the festival of Thanksgiving to the unseen Almighty God for whatever have yielded during the preceding months. On this occasion not any other animals but chicken is killed and sprinkled its hot blood against the outer surface of the bamboo pail for storing grains.
The other ritual associated with the Bongvum festival is the preparation of sticky rice. The meat is cooked with Prawns and Crabs mixed with dried bamboo shoots and ginger. This prepared food is put into the leaves carefully and tied to the main posts of the house. Both these rituals are performed as a token of giving thanks to the unseen Almighty for the blessings they are bestowed with, so that they may be blessed more in the next harvest. Also predicting the future of the family by taking out the chicken’s intestine performed by the father who is the head of the family forms another part of ritual during the festival.
The festival called Paangmo is another important events of the Phoms. It is celebrated in the month of November which stretches over three days. At this festival, the whole surroundings of the village is cleaned. Wells and homes are repaired and decorated. Every household and varying age-group brew special rice beer called YU" and kill animals. Parents present gifts commonly meat and prepared food to their daughters already married (DOIDAIBU YUKHA) who also reciprocate in the like manner with ardent "Love and Respect".
(The Festival of Rengma Tribe)
The Rengmas celebrate eight days of Ngadah festival towards the end of November, just after harvest. It is the festival of thanks giving, merry making and rejoicing. This festival also marks the end of agricultural year. The village High Priest (PHESENGU) announces the date of commencement of the festival at the top of his voice, so that the villagers can prepare themselves for the festival .
The first day is meant for the preparation of rice-beer by every household. Banana leaves are collected from the forest on the second day, for the Ngadah feast.
On the third day womenfolk visit the graves of their relatives and places rice-beer wrapped in banana leaves, on the graves. This is a symbolic presentation of offerings to the dead spirit. It was believed that the souls of the dead visit their near and dear ones once in a year during Ngadah festival. Therefore, the festival observes the remembrance of the departed souls, besides cleaning and repairing the graves. This is the day the rice-beer prepared for the festival is tasted by the eldest member of the house, which is followed by the others drinking from it.
On the fourth day, all male members gather together at their respective morungs known as ‘RENSI’, early in the morning, with their own rice beer and meat and have the meal there. It is taboo for womenfolk to take part in the morung feast. At mid-day, all male members in their ceremonial and warrior fineries, go around the village, followed by women with rice-beer in their mugs and bitter gourd containers, to offer them drinks.
The fifth day again witnesses all the male members go in procession, visiting all the houses singing songs relating to ‘NGADAH’ festival. Each household has to give something as a token of their appreciation, when the procession visit them.
On the sixth day, all members of the village visit the house of one another irrespective of khel or clan, eat and drink with one and all in every house without any restriction or hesitation.
On the seventh day, everybody go to the forest for collection of firewood, banana leaves and vegetables for the feast. A grand feast is arranged on the eighth day, where the whole village population feast on whatever was collected on the fifth day procession. After this feast, it is believed that the souls of those who died that very year, leave the village and go to the land of the dead. On this three rites are performed. One is the peace agreement with fire in order to avoid fire accident in the village. The second agreement is made with rats, so that they do not destroy crops or household goods. The third rite is performed to expel evil spirits from all households and village. This ends the eight long days celebration of the ‘NGADAH’ festival by the Rengmas.
(The Festival of Sangtam Tribe)
The Sangtams have about 12 festivals spreading over the calendar year including some special functions. Except certain ghenna, all the festivals concerned with food productions, blessings and prosperity. MONGMONG is one of the most important festivals of the Sangtams. The predominant theme of the festival is the worship of the God of the house and the three cooking stones in the fireplace. The festival is observed in the first week of September every year.
After toiling for several months during the year and when the crops are ripened for harvest, the green signal to start of the celebration of Amongmong festival is given by the village priest called "BEBURU" with due prayers and rites. At dead of the night the priest will announce/proclaim that " ZANGNYUO MONGMONG NUNG EH-LEHE". The next morning another priest will repeat the proclamation. Then the villagers will begin preparation for the festival by accumulating foodstuffs, firewood and special wine like Rohi and Madhu etc. The announcement made in the morning is the correct information. The proxy announcement made at dead of the night denotes separation of the spirit of the dead from the living during Mongmong festival. Also nobody would like to inherit the sins of the dead and any kind of sinful deeds. Thus through Mongmong festival a line is drawn between the dead and the living.
Mongmong festival, which means togetherness forever is very cautiously observed every year and stretches over six days. The object is to have a good harvest, food grains for which the villagers toiled for the whole year. The figure ‘Six’ also bears a great significance among our forefathers as the figure ‘Seven’ was among the Hebrews. For example, when a man brings enemy’s head from war, he keeps himself undefiled and observes genna for six days. A male baby is christened on the sixth day. If a man dies, the deceased family mourn for six days
Each day of the festival has its own significance. Thus, the first day that is September 1 is called ‘SINGKITHSA’. This day is marked by closing of all transactions relating to purchase of domestic animals like Pigs, Cows, Mithuns and rope them also preparation and collecting of foodstuffs. The villagers also engaged themselves in collection of vegetables, millets, and firewood from the old fields.
While collection of firewood and water continuous on the second day the roped domestic animals are also killed. After setting aside some portions for the feast the meat is distributed amongst the team members of the group called ATIRü and AKHINGRU. These male and female groups are organised according to the group primarily for working together in the fields of every member of the team in turn. During Amongmong festival, special meals are arranged in the house of the treasurer of the respective groups/ teams. On the other hand the meat of animals killed by rich individual is generally shared among relatives, neighbours and friends. The day is called "SINGKITHSA.
The third day is MUSUYANGTAP day of worshipping the 3 oven stones by one and all. In the early morning of third day of celebration the oldest women of the household performs the ritual by placing gum rice shaped into balls on the top of the 3 stones and also pours a little wine upon these stones believing that the God (LIJABA) is represented by these stones. Till the rituals completed nobody in the house is allowed to taste food and even animals are not fed. This performance normally takes a short time only. But great care is taken and during the ritual lest it is eaten up by some domestic animals which is believed to be the sign of some misfortune or wrath of the evil.
On these three days villagers will not go either to field or outside the village as according to the belief these actions would bring calamities and would damages the crops. Again at dawn the priest would go to the village well and draw water first very carefully followed by other people waiting there. But each one of them must cover his or her head with green leaves lest he/she is attacked by cholera. The day is celebrated with children playing among themselves with gay dresses and the young people in their best gathered in dormitory and exchange songs of bravery. In course of time they are usually joined by their girl friends. The whole day is devoted to drinking of rice-bear, dances including tug of war and other merrymaking activities etc.
The fourth day is called ‘KIKHALANGPI’. The male population of the village gives a face-lift to the village. Here again the priest will first start clearing the weeds then he is followed by all other villagers. Path leading to the fields, inter-village road, village wells and springs are cleaned. On returning home every grown up male member will contribute meat and wine and feast together in the house of the village priest. There they reaffirm mutual friendships. In short it is day of special gathering and feast. The wife of the house puts chillies, ginger and cotton in green leaves called ‘TSIDONG’ and puts them in the field or outside the village as according to the belief these actions would ward off calamities and prevent damage of crops.
The fifth day is called ‘SHILANG WUBA NYUMONG’. This day the villagers pay visit to relatives, friend and neighbouring villages. Also sharing of meals, drinks and exchange of gifts in the form of meat as presentation.
The last day of the festival is called ‘AKATISINGKITHSA’. From this day harvesting starts. On successful completion of six days celebration of Mongmong, the Sangtam Nagas believe that their God is well pleased and hope for blessing from him by having rich harvest and good health in the family.
(The Festival of Sumi Tribe)
Tuluni is a festival of great significance . This festival is marked with feasts as the occasion occurs in the bountiful season of the year. Drinking rice beer indispensably forms as part of feast. Rice beer is served in a goblet made with the leaf of plantain. This wine name is called TULUNI. Therefore, consumption of the wine is called "TULUNI". Tuluni is also called "ANNI" the word of which denote the season of plentiful crops. This midyear (July 8) festival is the greatest and most fervent moment for the Sumi Community of Nagaland.
During this festival, betrothed exchange the basketful of gifts with meals. Fiancé is invited to a grand dinner at the fiancée’s residence. Even siblings of the families of both the bride and groom exchanges dinner and packed food and meats.
It is a time of joy even for the baby-sitters. On this day they are fed generously with food and meat. Cultivators usually work in groups and specially for Anni (Festival) they keep budged with either pigs or cows are procured and the butchered animals are shared among the members. The served meat is used for group feast. In the midst of the feast group leaders gets extra offer of meat by way of feeding them by others. Each working group consists of 20 to 30 in number which includes several women too. The new recruits are also made to add the group at this grand feast.
The Betrothed are settled at this period. The fervours of feast is synchronised with a chain of folk songs and ballads.
Sumis have two different clan-heads, viz. Swu (Sumi) and Tuku (Tukumi). By virtue of two separate clans the gennas and rituals differs between Sumi and Tukumi. Among all other festivals and gennas, Sumis in general accepted the festival of Tuluni as the most grand and important one.

AHUNA is a traditional post-harvest festival of the Sumis. AHUNA signifies the celebration of the season’s harvest in thanksgiving, while invoking the spirit of good fortune in the New Year. On this occasion, the entire community prepares, and feast on the first meal of rice drawn from the season’s harvest cooked in a bamboo segments. The receptacles for cooking or serving on this occasion are freshly made, curved or cut, from indigenously available resources prolific and abundant in the countryside.
(The Festival of Yimchungrü Tribe)
The Yimchungrüs celebrate Metumniu festival from 4th to 8th August every year after the harvest of millet. This festival is connected with the prayers for the souls of the departed ones. It is sentimental ceremony for those dear ones who left for heavenly abode during the year. An elder known as "KHEAMPURU" after due prayers inaugurates the festival. The festival is spread over for five days, which has its separate names of the days viz. SHITO, ZHIHTO, ZUMTO, KHEHRESUK, and SHERESUK.
On the first day the village is cleaned by community efforts, the damage roads and homes by the heavy rains are repaired. On the second day the path leading to the field are put in right shape, land slides which are very common during heavy rains are cleaned. Unwieldy growths are also cut. On the third day inter-village roads are taken up. On the fourth day water points and springs are cleaned giving a new look to the village and its surrounding. The villagers enjoy their millet. Friends are invited, gifts are exchanged. They dance in their finest and go round the village to charm young and old.
As the festival has a strong Agricultural base, the Agricultural implements are sharpened and worshipped the three important things such as Spade, Dao and Hoe.
During Metumniu festival the young boys and girls are engaged and those already betrothed exchange presents for new born babies. Special prayers are held and offering are made if the child happens to be male. The parents offer six pieces of meat to the Priest, and if the child happens to be female parents offer five pieces of meat. This signifies that the male has six souls and female five.
The Tsungkamniü another important festival of Yimchungrüs fall in the month of January 14th to 16th every year. This festival is observed to signify the year long life and harvest achieved during the long hard works in the field.
During this festival the young men and women of the village gathered together and go round dancing every house of the village in merriment. In turn every household provide meat, wine and rice cooked kept ready for them. This procession would go round the entire village and complete within stipulated time. The first day in the morning is spent for cleaning the village and thereafter eating, drinking and dancing starts.

(The Festival of Zeliang Tribe)
The Hega festival is one of the most important and the biggest festival amongst the Zeliang community. It falls in the month of February from 10th to 15th every year. It is a festival invoking the Almighty God to shower his blessing upon his people with richness, luck and courage. It is also a festival of joy, rest and get together. On this day people pray to the almighty God for protection and guidance. On this festival the young couple are united for their future. The festival is announced earlier and all the preparations are done before hand. And the festival begin with variety of programmes and merry making.
First Day ( Hega Teu dap )
On this day all the killing of animals for the festival are done in every household and those who have no such animals ether buy or share with other members. On this day itself the eldest of the family call his grandsons and daughters for the common meal to his house. Here they share special song which are composed specially composed for their grandsons and daughter. The grandsons and daughters have to wear shawls for that special occasion.
In the evening the engaged couple specially the bride will present all the traditional dresses like shawls and other garments. Together with the boys and the elders there will be a common gathering at the bride groom’ s Morung (the bride and the bridegroom are included).
Second Day (Herie kap)
On the second day of the festival, the gate keeper of the main gate will have a special and separate prayer invoking the protection of the Almighty to the Villagers and to shower his blessing in all walk of like for the year to come. After the prayer he would go to jungle and there also he will have a special prayer asking God to show him the right tree for the sacrifice. When it is shown to him the youth will cut it and shape it into a Horn Bill and put it up in the main Gate with decoration and other necessary things.
In the evening the elders and the boys will make noise (Nro) and go up and down the whole village for two three times and at the end they will try to pierce the heart of the wooden Horn Bill. If they manage it then it is good luck. Richness and blessing will be bestowed to his children. After this all men and boys will gather I their own Morung to have special prayer specially for good luck in hunting.
Third day ( Tsing Rak )
On this day early in the morning the bride will gather all the girls from her Khel. They will go to the jungle to cut fresh firewood for the evening. This firewood is split into small pieces and the bark is also taken out. In the meantime the elders and the youth from the khel will go to the jungle and cut a big tree which is shaped and colour is put on the two wooden pieces showing the purity and the virginity of the bride.
In the evening the bride will carry the two wooden pieces which signifies her life. The firewood and the wooden pieces are kept in the main gate or the last gate of the village. With these two heavy wooden pieces ( ten to twelve feet in height ) the bride will start from the gate and the rest of the boys and girls will carry the firewood and follow the bride to the girl’s Morung. And on this night the bridegroom will provide food and drink to the girls in the Girl’s Morung.
Fourth day (Rodi)
The fourth day and the last day of the festival is the most important day of the festival. In the morning the boys will prepare a place for long jump and for wrestling ( a place which is set apart by our forefathers ). On this day traditional dresses like shawls and other garments are worn.
In the evening all the villagers will gather on that particular place where long jump and wrestling takes place. The men and boys will make noise ( Nro ) and go up and down the village for three times. After this they will come to the jumping place and make noise two times again (invoking god to bless the villagers for their work). Then ( Nro) the long jump will take place and after that the wrestling . The winner of the long jump will have to give in kind or in cash to the village High Priest. Then there will be singing together with the bride up and down the village. The songs are of love, praise and farewell song to the bride and the bridegroom, especially to the bride because she can never take part again in the dance or in such practices.
At night the bride would visit each household encouraging men, boys and girls to take part in the dance. For the elders ( men ) she will prepare special soup from meat and give them for their health and strength for the dance.
Last day ( Koksui )
It is the last and the most important day of the festival. Here you will see early in the morning people putting on their traditional dress getting ready for the dance. The bride together with some of her friends will go round the village and will give bath to those who are unwilling to join the dance. For the bride it is the last dance in her life ( a married girl cannot join the dance again ). This dance can be participated only by virgin girls. For boys and men whether they are married or not can dance if their health permits .
The dances are performed in the evening with different steps and meaning. After the dances, all the dancers will go to the whole village singing and dancing, at some places they will play games and sing songs together with the bride and bridegroom.
From the first day of the festival new fire is lit by the eldest from each khel and these elders have to take only pork throughout the festival. Also during the festival no men should sleep with their wives for losing of good luck and courage especially of hunting. On the sixth day elders put off the new fire and celebrate. But the rest of the villagers can start their works from that day onwards with all the blessing and luck from Almighty God who always care for his children.
Chega Gadi is another important and popular festival of the Zeliang people, being celebrated by the forefathers and still being celebrated up to this date. The genesis of this festival marks the peoples beliefs that on this day the Almighty showers blessing and good harvest and health. However the date for the celebration often differ from communities and villages, which is usually fixed according to their conveniences. The Liangmai community celebrate this festival usually at the last part of Chegahui i.e. October.
Earlier the forefathers observed this festival for a duration of 4 -5 days. However , the duration is reduced to even 3 to 4 days on times of any casualties. The people wait anxiously even at midnight to see the first new moon, which is believed to be a boon and bring blessings of God. After the appearance of the moon the priest of the village ( Singkupiu ) makes and announcement and the people began necessary [reparation such as dresses, attirements, food and drinks. After all the preparations are over, the Priest make another announcement as a prelude to the festival. The next morning the youths of the village men folk and womenfolk go to the jungles to cut firewood and bring them to their respected morungs . At noon the men folk go to make new cups and plates of bamboo to be used only in the festival. In the evening the men folk again will go to draw water to be used in the Morung. From this day onwards a separate fire place will be made for men folk usually at a room called ‘ AKHANGKI’ and cooking is separated from the womenfolk of the family. At sunset all the men folk along with 2 (two) High Priest will go outside the main gate of the village for making new fire to be used for the festival and the males are then blessed. After which they shout signifying that they have been sanctified. The men folk collect the fire and come back to their respective Morungs and as per the tradition the womenfolk are prohibited to touch the fire, and even the cups and plates of the festival, till the third day of the festival. From this day onwards all the men folks irrespective of all age leave their homes and sleep in the Morung.
On the third day 2 (two) males who observed fasting will go to the jungle to collect wood which will be craved like a man and tattooed. This wooden statue is then installed at the two gates of t the village and then spearing of the wooden statue takes place. After that, all the men folk gather at the main ground of the village which is also the jumping-pit and various competitions are held viz. Long-jump, wrestling, cock-fights of the men folk etc. Later the high Priest would declare the completion of all the arrangement and lift prohibitions imposed earlier. The folks of the village irrespective of men and women are now free from all bindings and they start feasting and merry-making till the end of the festival.
Art and Craft of the Nagas
The Nagas have a rich tradition of art and craft rooted in a lifestyle that has always been harmony with the environment they live in. Skilled tribal craftsman and artisans have always been the pillars of a tribal society that had, for many centuries, been self-sufficient. They lent their skills to creating items of utility as well those with ritualistic and aesthetic value. To quote Dr. Verrier Elwin; “they have made their own cloth, their won hats and rain-coats; they have prepared their own medicines, their own cooking-vessels, their own substitutes for crockery …. “ Skilled craftsmen were employees to carve splendid village gates, house posts and Morungs in Naga villages. Fine storage baskets, wicker drinking vessels and containers were woven by craftsmen whose skills had been inherited from generations of skilled craftsmen.
It was these craftsmen, weavers and artisans who foraged the forest in search of wood, barks, dyes and other resources that were utilized to carve out fine works of art and weave colorful clothes that distinguished each Naga tribe.

The various crafts and art that were known to the early Nagas and are still carried out to this day are;
1) Basketry : Naga storage and carry baskets women from fine strips of cane and bamboo are well known and sought after for their utility as well as aesthetic value. The cane baskets of Khonoma village are particularly well know for their intricate weaves. The cane baskets and containers woven by the Khiamngan weavers in the Tuensang District are also known for their fineness and delicacy of work that gives it a lace-like appearance. Headgears and mats are also woven from fine bamboo and cane strips. In the recent years, entrepreneurs have utilized the skills of these craftsmen to weave beautiful cane furniture that are being marketed in the local as well as outside market.
2) Weaving: Naga women are excellent weavers and the colorful shawls, bags and jackets woven by them are extremely popular. The ‘backstrap’ or the loin loom is commonly used for weaving, although, in recent years the fly shuttle loom has become popular with the weavers. Each tribe uses distinguishing colors and motifs that are often based on tribal folklore. Earlier, natural dyes extracted from barks, roots and plants were used for dyeing cotton yarn and woven fabrics. In addition, woven cloth was embellished with beads, cowrie shells and goats hair to denote the wealth and status of the weaver. Body cloth symbolizing Feast-giving and Head-taking added to the variety of clothes woven on the backstrap loom.

The art of weaving is still popular amongst the Naga women, especially in the rural areas and the woven products of Nagaland have found its way into the National as well as International marker.
3) Woodcarving : Nagas are excellent woodcarvers. Making using of simple rudimentary tools and implements such as the local dao, hand drill and chisel, skilled craftsmen produce great works of art that local adorn village gates and house posts as well as objects of utility like the common wooden dish. One of the finest specimen that epitomizes the skill of the Naga craftsman is to be found at Shangnyu village in Mon District. The work of art at Shangnyu consists of a massive wooden panel that has carvings depicting objects of art as well as those of ritual and utility value.
Woodcraft has now been commercialized and craftsmen have been able to use their traditional skills to generate income for themselves. The Diezephe Craft village in Dimapur District is a good example of a cragft concentrated village where the major sourse of income is from woodcraft.
4) Pottery : Pottery was known to the early Nagas and was mostly done by the womenfolk. The pots made were generally very simple and importance was given to its functional value rather than aesthetics. Tseminyu and Ungma village were well known for pottery by aluminum and steel vessels have long replaced the simple clay pots.
5) Metal work : Iron tin and brass were used to produce weapons as well items of utility and ornaments. The Konyak blacksmiths were famous for their works in the early days and their products were in great demand in the plains of Assam. To this day, the local dao, spears, chisels, ornaments and other items of utility are still made by local blacksmith whose skills are highly valued in society.
In addition, jewellery and beadwork is also popular with local craftsmen. Naga festivals are a testimony to the fascination and love the Naga tribesmen have for art and craft. The color and beauty of the traditional attires symbolize the wealth and status of the wearer as well as the skill of the maker. The abundance of raw material, the splendid environment and the inherent skills of the people have all played a role in generating a rich history of art and craft in Nagaland. The resurgence of art and craft in recent times has enable the traditional craftsman and artisan to earn as he creates

Tourist Permits
Domestic tourists visiting Nagaland are required to obtain an Inner Line Permit. These permits are issued by:
The Resident Commissioner, Nagaland House, 29 Aurangzeb Road, New Delhi ;
Additional Resident Commissioner, Nagaland House, 12 Shakespeare Sarani, Kolkata ;
Assistant Resident Commissioner, Nagaland House, Nongrim Hills, Shillong, Meghalaya ;
Assistant Resident Commissioner, Nagaland House, Guwahati, Assam.
It is also issued by the Deputy Commissioner, Dimapur, Nagaland.
Foreign Tourists are required a Restricted Area Permit from the MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, NEW DELHI.
District Tribe Festival Period
Kohima Angami Sekrenyi February
Kohima Rengma Ngadah November (last week)
Kohima Zeliang Hega February (2nd week)
Kohima Kuki Mimkuut January (3rd week)
Phek Chakhesang Sühkrühnye January (3rd week)
Phek Pochury Yemshe September / October
Mokokchung Ao Moatsü May (1st week)
Mon Konyak Aoleang Monyu April (1st week)
Tuensang Phom Monyu April (1st week)
Tuensang Khiamnuingan Miu May (1st week)
Tuensang Chang Naknyu Lem July (2nd week)
Tuensang Yimchungrü Metumniu August (1st week)
Tuensang Sangtam Amongmong September (1st week)
Wokha Lotha Tokhü Emong November (1st week)
Zunheboto Sumi Tuluni July
Dimapur Kachari Bushu January (last week)


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